Publication Search

In this collection you will find peer-reviewed journal articles, research, and findings related to treatment courts. You can search by author, year, subject, or court type; click “reset” to begin a new search. Due to copyright laws, some of these articles may require extra steps to view once leaving the NDCRC website. If access is limited, you may be able to request articles from the clearinghouse, the author, or your local library; a guide to our access labels is below. This page will be continuously updated as information relevant to the field is released.

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Consumers’ Perspectives on Successful and Unsuccessful Experiences in a Drug Treatment Court

Authors: Merith Cosden, Amber Baker, Cristina Benki, Sarah Patz, Sara Walker & Kristen Sullivan
Journal: Substance Use & Misuse

This study focused on the program experiences of 190 men and women who chose to participate in a drug treatment court in lieu of incarceration in California. Participants had committed non-violent criminal offenses related to drug abuse. The program required 18 months of community-based treatment in conjunction with court supervision including frequent drug testing and 6 months of abstinence for successful program completion. Interviews were conducted in 2007/2008 with 94 participants who had successfully completed treatment and 96 who had not. Open-ended questions addressed reasons for entering and remaining in treatment and supports and obstacles to program completion. Responses were coded using ethnographic content analysis. Factors associated with successful program completion are discussed.

 

Cosden, M., Baker, A., Benki, C., Patz, S., Walker, S., & Sullivan, K. (2010). Consumers’ Perspectives on Successful and Unsuccessful Experiences in a Drug Treatment Court. Substance Use & Misuse, 45(7–8), 1033–1049.https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732311406450

Keywords: consumer, drug court, motivation, social support, therapeutic jurisprudence, treatment

special-access-required2010adult

Providing Recovery Services for Offenders with Co-Occurring Disorders

Authors: Christine Kleinpeter, PsyD; Elizabeth Piper Deschenes, PhD; Jeff Blanks, MFT; Cory R. Lepage, MS; Myesa Knox, MS
Journal: Journal of Dual Diagnosis

 

Objectives: Providing adequate treatment and supervision for drug offenders with co-occurring disorders has been a challenge because they are usually not eligible for drug court and often fail to comply with the conditions of probation in other drug diversion programs. Here we report the results of a process evaluation of the Co-Occurring Disorders Court (CODC) implemented by the Superior Court of the County of Orange, California.

 

Methods: Drug offenders who are chronically, persistently mentally ill and diagnosed with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or a major depressive disorder participated in an 18-month program that provides integrated treatment. Following evaluation by a psychiatrist and the drug court team (judge, public defender, probation officer, and mental health caseworker), they are placed on medication and referred to residential and/or outpatient drug treatment. During the program they are randomly drug tested and their progress is monitored by the drug court team; they receive sanctions for program noncompliance or rewards for program compliance. Results: In the first two years of operation the CODC admitted 72 offenders. The study findings indicate the majority of participants are being stabilized on their medications, which increases their treatment stay and improves their quality of life. At 6 months the participants show advances in social functioning, decreasing problems due to substance use, and productivity in the achievement of life goals.

 

Conclusions: The results of the process evaluation indicate the program is achieving the stated objectives. The services provided to the CODC participants are well coordinated, offering continuity of care between the community and jail as well as extensive case management and supervision.

 

Kleinpeter, C., Deschenes, E. P., Blanks, J., Lepage, C. R., & Knox, M. (2006). Providing Recovery Services for Offenders with Co-Occurring Disorders. Journal of Dual Diagnosis3(1), 59–85. https://doi.org/10.1300/J374v03n01_06

Keywords: co-occurring disorders, drug court evaluation, offender treatment

special-access-required2006cooccurring

A Guiding Hand or a Slap on the Wrist: Can Drug Courts Be the Solution to Maternal Opioid Use?

Author: Cara O’Connor
Journal: The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

As the opioid epidemic has expanded its reach, the number of pregnant women addicted to opioids has increased exponentially in recent years. The increase in the number of opioid-addicted pregnant women has resulted in a drastic expansion in the number of newborns who experience Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS). Newborns affected with NAS experience painful withdrawal and cost more to care for due to their increased health needs. In an effort to address the growing number of pregnant women using opioids and babies born with NAS, some states have turned to the criminal justice system. Three states–Tennessee, South Carolina, and Alabama–have criminalized maternal drug use, either through construction of a new statute or by using existing statutes for this purpose, which has been upheld in their courts. Although high courts in many other states have continuously determined that such prosecutions are unlawful, women across the United States continue to face criminal charges for their substance use while pregnant. This Comment addresses the concerns opioid addicted pregnant women pose to the criminal justice system and argues that drug courts are a crucial component to comprehensive reform. The drug court system needs to follow the lead of a recently established drug court in Buffalo, New York and embrace necessary reforms to better serve the health needs of pregnant women struggling with opioid addiction. This Comment argues the following reforms are necessary to effectively adjudicate cases involving pregnant drug use: expedited proceedings to begin treatment and avoid jailing; access to medication-assisted treatment; allowing women to spend time with their newborns; an appropriate sanctions system that recognizes the medical reality of relapse; and funding considerations that prevent women from having to pay for treatment. If drug courts are part of a comprehensive solution to treatment for opioid addiction, these reforms can contribute to better meeting the health care needs of women and their children.

 

O’Connor, C. (2019). A Guiding Hand or a Slap on the Wrist: Can Drug Courts Be the Solution to Maternal Opioid Use? The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (1973-)109(1), 103–136. JSTOR.

 

special-access-required2019adult

Can Courtroom Behavior Predict Recidivism? An Assessment of the Courtroom Behavior Check List for Women Presenting in Drug Court

Authors: Jennifer M. Reingle, Catherine W. Striley, Eusebius Small, Robert Crecelius, Catina Callahan O’leary, et al.
Journal: American Journal of Criminal Justice

The U.S. criminal justice system is overwhelmed with individuals affected by substance use and psychiatric disorders often co-morbid with criminal behavior. Locally, an evaluation of St. Louis downtown municipal ordinance violators found that 49 % of offenders reported mental health problems, 30 % reported alcohol-related problems, 86 % had a history of prior arrests and 71 % had failed to appear in the St. Louis City Municipal Court within the previous 2 years (Downtown St. Louis Community Court Evaluation Report, St. Louis, MO). These compounded conditions and their corresponding treatment needs are costly and complicate correctional rehabilitation efforts. Drug courts have emerged as alternative ‘therapeutic jurisprudence’ avenues designed to reduce drug use and associated individual risk behaviors. Unfortunately, there are few evidence-based measures available for rapid, onsite evaluation of an individuals’ potential for success with drug court. A new assessment tool, the Courtroom Behavior Check List (CRBCL), was developed to measure behavioral compliance in court as a predictor of future behavior, as we believed that behavior in court would predict future criminal behavior. We found scores on the CRBCL declined (e.g., improved) among the 127 women interviewed from baseline through the 8-month follow-up, and that a poorer score predicted re-arrest for a criminal offense (OR=2.84; 95 % CI 1.20-6.69). Based upon these findings, the CRBCL may be a useful tool to measure the likelihood of re-offending among women in drug court. Policy implications and directions for future research are discussed.

 

Reingle, J. M., Striley, C. W., Small, E., Crecelius, R., O’leary, C. C., & Cottler, L. B. (2013). Can Courtroom Behavior Predict Recidivism? An Assessment of the Courtroom Behavior Check List for Women Presenting in Drug Court. American Journal of Criminal Justice : AJCJ; Louisville38(4), 520–534.

Keywords: adult treatment courts, court behavior, criminology, law enforcement, preparation, recidivism, women

special-access-required2013adult

Balancing Act: The Adaptation of Traditional Judicial Roles in Reentry Court

Author: Caitlin J. Taylor
Journal: Journal of Offender Rehabilitation

While research has confirmed their role adaptation and importance in reducing recidivism in drug courts, little research has documented the role of the judge in reentry courts. Based on interviews with participants and the workgroup, court observations, and a document analysis, this study revealed that judges in a federal reentry court program balance informal, supportive relationships with participants with more traditional, authoritative, disciplinarian roles. The implications of this balancing act for participants’ perceptions and other reentry court programs are also discussed.

 

Taylor, C. J. (2012). Balancing Act: The Adaptation of Traditional Judicial Roles in Reentry Court. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation51(6), 351–369. https://doi.org/10.1080/10509674.2012.677945

Keywords: probationers, program evaluation, reentry, reintegration, role transformation

special-access-required2012reentry

Community Perspectives on Drug/Alcohol Use, Concerns, Needs, and Resources in Four Washington State Tribal Communities

Authors: Sandra M. Radin, Stephen H. Kutz, June La Marr, Diane Vendiola, Michael Vendiola, Brian Wilbur, Lisa Rey Thomas, Dennis M. Donovan
Journal: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse

Community-university teams investigated substance use, abuse, and dependence (SUAD) and related concerns, needs, strengths, and resources in four Washington State Tribal communities. A total of 153 key community members shared their perspectives through 43 semi-structured interviews and 19 semi-structured focus groups. Qualitative data analysis revealed robust themes: prescription medications and alcohol were perceived as most prevalent and concerning; family and peer influences and emotional distress were prominent perceived risk factors; and SUAD intervention resources varied across communities. Findings may guide future research and the development of much needed strength-based, culturally appropriate, and effective SUAD interventions for American Indians, Alaska Natives, and their communities.

 

Radin, S. M., Kutz, S. H., Marr, J. L., Vendiola, D., Vendiola, M., Wilbur, B., Thomas, L. R., & Donovan, D. M. (2015). Community Perspectives on Drug/Alcohol Use, Concerns, Needs, and Resources in Four Washington State Tribal Communities. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse14(1), 29–58.

Keywords: Alaska Native, American Indian, Native American, participatory research, substance use, tribal, Washington state

special-access-required2015tribal

Military Socialization: A Motivating Factor for Seeking Treatment in a Veterans’ Treatment Court

Authors: Eileen Ahlin, Anne Douds
Journal: American Journal of Criminal Justice

The veterans’ treatment court movement is just beyond the nascent period, and given the rapid proliferation of these courts in recent years it is imperative that the scientific community understand their operational procedures and assess whether they are meeting a unique need beyond those addressed by other problem-solving courts. This paper provides an in-depth examination of veteran culture and how it helps to distinguish veterans’ treatment courts from other courts that focus on similar populations (e.g., drug, DWI, and mental health courts). Using in-depth semi-structured interviews and focus group data collected from veteran participants, veteran mentors, and court team members in Pennsylvania, we employ content analysis to explore the veteran culture as a motivator for participants to enroll in a veterans’ treatment court and engage with others throughout participation in treatment. The results of this exploratory study suggest that a shared culture serves to motivate justice-involved veterans to seek out the veterans’ treatment court over other treatment options and remain engaged in this problem-solving court, while inspiring a sense of obligation to do well in treatment for them and their fellow veterans. The shared experiences of military service and across-the-board support for fellow service members suggest that the veterans’ treatment court creates a unique environment for pursuing treatment.

 

Ahlin, E. M., & Douds, A. S. (2016). Military Socialization: A Motivating Factor for Seeking Treatment in a Veterans’ Treatment Court. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 41(1), 83–96., 14(1), 29–58.

Keywords: justice-involved veterans, problem-solving courts, treatment motivation, veterans treatment courts

access-available2016veterans

A Multi-Site Study of the Use of Sanctions and Incentives in Mental Health Courts

Authors: Lisa Callahan, Henry J. Steadman, Sheila Tillman, Roumen Vesselinov
Journal: Law and Human Behavior

Mental health courts (MHCs) have become widespread in the United States as a form of diversion for justice-involved individuals with mental illness. Sanctions and incentives are considered crucial to the functioning of MHCs and drug courts, yet with little empirical guidance to support or refute their use, and there are no definitions of what they are. The use of sanctions and to a lesser degree incentives is the focus of this article, with particular emphasis on jail sanctions. Subjects are participants (n = 447) in four MHCs across the United States. Results show that jail sanctions are used in three of four MHCs, and other sanctions are similarly used across the four MHCs. Participants charged with ‘person crimes’ are the least likely to receive any sanctions, including jail, whereas those charged with drug offenses are most often sanctioned. The factors associated with receiving a jail sanction are recent drug use, substance use diagnosis, and drug arrests; being viewed as less compliant with court conditions, receiving more bench warrants, and having more in-custody hearings; and MHC program termination. No personal characteristics are related to receiving sanctions. Knowing which MHC participants are more likely to follow court orders and avoid sanctions, and identifying those who have difficulty adhering to court conditions, can help guide court officials on adjusting supervision, perhaps avoiding reoffending and program failure.

 

Callahan, L., Steadman, H. J., Vesselinov, R., & Vesselinov, R. (2013). A multi-site study of the use of sanctions and incentives in mental health courts. Law and Human Behavior37(1), 1–9.

Keywords: adjudication, incentives, mental health, mental health courts, sanctions

access-available2013mental-health

A Randomized Pilot Study of the Engaging Moms Program for Family Drug Court

Authors: Gayle A. Dakof, Jeri B. Cohen, Craig E. Henderson, Eliette Duarte, Maya Boustani, Audra Blackburna, Ellen Venzer, Sam Hawes
Journal: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment

In response to the need for effective drug court interventions, the effectiveness of the Engaging Moms Program (EMP) versus Intensive Case Management Services (ICMS) on multiple outcomes for mothers enrolled in family drug court was investigated. In this intent-to-treat study, mothers (N = 62) were randomly assigned to either usual drug court care or the Engaging Moms drug court program. Mothers were assessed at intake and 3, 6, 12, and 18 months following intake. Results indicated that at 18 months post drug court enrollment, 77% of mothers assigned to EMP versus 55% of mothers assigned to ICMS had positive child welfare dispositions. There were statistically significant time effects for both intervention groups on multiple outcomes including substance use, mental health, parenting practices, and family functioning. EMP showed equal or better improvement than ICMS on all outcomes. The results suggest that EMP in family drug court is a viable and promising intervention approach to reduce maternal addiction and child maltreatment.

 

Dakof, G. A., Cohen, J. B., Henderson, C. E., Duarte, E., Boustani, M., Blackburn, A., Venzer, E., & Hawes, S. (2010). A randomized pilot study of the Engaging Moms Program for family drug court. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment38(3), 263–274.

Keywords: addiction, child maltreatment, drug courts, women

special-access-required2010family

Medication Assisted Treatment in US Drug Courts: Results from a Nationwide Survey of Availability, Barriers and Attitudes

Authors: Harlan Matusow, MA; Samuel L. Dickman, AB; Josiah D. Rich, MD, MPH; Chunki Fong, MS; Dora M. Dumont, PhD, MPH; Carolyn Hardin, MPA; Douglas Marlowe, JD, PhD; Andrew Rosenblum, PhD
Journal: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment

Drug treatment courts are an increasingly important tool in reducing the census of those incarcerated for non-violent drug offenses; medication assisted treatment (MAT) is proven to be an effective treatment for opioid addiction. However, little is known about the availability of and barriers to MAT provision for opioid-addicted people under drug court jurisdiction. Using an online survey, we assessed availability, barriers, and need for MAT (especially agonist medication) for opioid addiction in drug courts. Ninety-eight percent reported opioid-addicted participants, and 47% offered agonist medication (56% for all MAT including naltrexone). Barriers included cost and court policy. Responses revealed significant uncertainty, especially among non-MAT providing courts. Political, judicial and administrative opposition appear to affect MAT’s inconsistent use and availability in drug court settings. These data suggest that a substantial, targeted educational initiative is needed to increase awareness of the treatment and criminal justice benefits of MAT in the drug courts.

 

Matusow, H., Dickman, S. L., Rich, J. D., Fong, C., Dumont, D. M., Hardin, C., Marlowe, D., & Rosenblum, A. (2013). Medication assisted treatment in US drug courts: Results from a nationwide survey of availability, barriers and attitudes. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment44(5), 473–480.

Keywords: buprenorphine, drug courts, medication-assisted treatment, methadone, naltrexone

access-available2013opioid

Diversion of Veterans With Criminal Justice Involvement to Treatment Courts: Participant Characteristics and Outcomes

Authors: Jack Tsai, Bessie Flatley, Wesley J. Kasprow, Sean Clark, Andrea Finlay
Journal: Psychiatric Services

Objective: This study compared characteristics and outcomes between veterans who participated in veterans treatment courts (VTCs) and veterans involved in criminal justice who participated in other treatment courts (TCs) or who participated in neither VTCs or TCs.

 

Methods: Data from 22,708 veterans (N=8,083 VTC participants, 680 participants in other TCs [other-TC participants], and 13,945 participants in neither VTCs nor TCs [non-TC participants]) in the Veterans Justice Outreach (VJO) program were analyzed by using multilevel regression models.

 

Results: VTC participants were more likely than other VJO participants to have served in Iraq or Afghanistan, but there were no sociodemographic disparities in access to VTCs. VTC participants were more likely than non-TC participants to have drug or public-order offenses, and they were more likely than other-TC participants to have DUI offenses. VTC participants had better independent housing outcomes than other VJO participants, and they had better employment outcomes than non-TC participants. However, VTC and other-TC participants were also more likely to have jail sanctions and new incarcerations compared with non-TC participants.

 

Conclusions: VTCs are a growing service model that serves a broad group of veterans with a range of criminal offenses. Although VTCs show moderate benefits in housing and employment, specialized services are needed to reduce recidivism and maximize these benefits.

 

Tsai, J., Flatley, B., Kasprow, W. J., Clark, S., & Finlay, A. (2016). Diversion of Veterans With Criminal Justice Involvement to Treatment Courts: Participant Characteristics and Outcomes. Psychiatric Services68(4), 375–383.

 

access-available2016veterans

Catch, Treat, and Release: Veteran Treatment Courts Address the Challenges of Returning Home

Authors: Michelle Slattery, Mallory Tascha Dugger, Theodore A. Lamb, Laura Williams
Journal: Substance Use & Misuse

After a decade of war, there is a great need for treatment and alternatives to incarceration for justice-involved veterans. U.S. military service members are returning from combat with substantial mental health challenges, which increase the potential for justice involvement. Veteran Treatment Courts are starting across the nation to meet this need for therapeutic justice. These problem solving courts provide access to treatment and motivation for engagement. Preliminary evidence from a Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration-funded evaluation suggests that significant improvements in posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use are just a few of the positive outcomes that these courts may help veterans achieve.

 

Slattery, M., Dugger, M. T., Lamb, T. A., & Williams, L. (2013). Catch, Treat, and Release: Veteran Treatment Courts Address the Challenges of Returning Home. Substance Use & Misuse48(10), 922–932.

Keywords: employment, housing, justice, OEF, OIF, ptsd, SAMHSA, substance abuse, TBI, US military, veterans treatment court

special-access-required2013veterans

A Specialized Treatment Court for Veterans with Trauma Exposure: Implications for the Field

Authors: Kraig J. Knudsen, Scott Wingenfeld
Journal: Community Mental Health Journal

This study examines the efficacy of providing a Veterans Treatment Court specialized docket to trauma-affected veterans. Eighty-Six veterans enrolled in a jail diversion and trauma recovery Veterans Treatment Court program. Veteran participants were interviewed at baseline, 6- and 12-months to determine if the program led to improvements in jail recidivism, psychiatric symptoms, quality of life, and recovery. The results suggest that veteran’s involved in the Veterans Treatment Court programs experienced significant improvement in PTSD, depression, substance abuse, overall functioning, emotional wellbeing, relationships with others, recovery status, social connectedness, family functioning, and sleep.

 

Knudsen, K. J., & Wingenfeld, S. (2016). A Specialized Treatment Court for Veterans with Trauma Exposure: Implications for the Field. Community Mental Health Journal; New York52(2), 127–135.

Keywords: combat exposure, outcomes, ptsd, specialized docket, trauma, veterans, veterans treatment court

access-available2016veterans

A National Study of Veterans Treatment Court Participants: Who Benefits and Who Recidivates

Authors: Jack Tsai, Andrea Finlay, Bessie Flatley, Wesley J. Kasprow
Journal: Substance Use & Misuse

Although there are now over 400 veterans treatment courts (VTCs) in the country, there have been few studies on participant outcomes in functional domains. Using national data on 7931 veterans in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Veterans Justice Outreach program across 115 VA sites who entered a VTC from 2011 to 2015, we examined the housing, employment, income, and criminal justice outcomes of VTC participants; and identified veteran characteristics predictive of outcomes. VTC participants spent an average of nearly a year in the program and 14% experienced a new incarceration. From program admission to exit, 10% more participants were in their own housing, 12% more were receiving VA benefits, but only 1% more were employed. Controlling for background characteristics, a history of incarceration predicted poor criminal justice, housing, and employment outcomes. Participants with property offenses or probation/parole violations and those with substance use disorders were more likely to experience a new incarceration. Participants with more mental health problems were more likely to be receiving VA benefits and less likely to be employed at program exit. Together, these findings highlight the importance of proper substance abuse treatment as well as employment services for VTC participants so that they can benefit from the diversion process.

 

Tsai, J., Finlay, A., Flatley, B., Kasprow, W. J., & Clark, S. (2018). A National Study of Veterans Treatment Court Participants: Who Benefits and Who Recidivates. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research; New York45(2), 236–244.

Keywords: criminal justice, homelessness, incarceration, treatment courts, veterans

access-available2018veterans

A Three-Stage Model for Mental Health Treatment Court: A Qualitative Analysis of Graduates’ Perspectives

Authors: Lee Ann Eschbach, Rebecca Spirito Dalgin, Elizabeth Pantucci
Journal: Community Mental Health Journal

Mental Health Treatment Courts (MHTC) address the overrepresentation of individuals with mental health disorders in the criminal justice system and strive to minimize the “revolving door” cycle of arrest/incarceration/release/re-arrest. A qualitative research group interview design was conducted with program graduates resulting in a three-stage model. Participant’s motivation was initially to avoid jail, but over time participants begin to make intentional choices leading to mental health recovery. Participants also described the importance of their relationship with the staff and the judge as well as the need for trust, understanding, and respect throughout the program. Recommendations for future research and program development are discussed.

 

Eschbach, L. A., Dalgin, R. S., & Pantucci, E. (2019). A Three-Stage Model for Mental Health Treatment Court: A Qualitative Analysis of Graduates’ Perspectives. Community Mental Health Journal; New York55(4), 590–598.

Keywords: empowerment, mental illness and incarceration, psychiatric rehabilitation, recovery, treatment courts

special-access-required2019mental-health

Criminogenic Factors Associated with Noncompliance and Rearrest of Mental Health Court Participants

Authors: Laura Honegger, Kyle Honegger
Journal: Criminal Justice and Behavior

There is a considerable overrepresentation of individuals with mental health issues within the U.S. criminal justice system as compared with the general population. Mental health courts (MHCs) arose in response to this concern, with a primary aim of reducing recidivism. Thus far, MHC research has largely neglected the potential utility of criminogenic factors. A retrospective analysis of 163 MHC participants was conducted to examine the association between clinical and criminogenic factors and noncompliance, as well as for recidivism, using a series of Bayesian negative binomial regression models to compare predictors. Criminogenic factors, namely first offending prior to the age of 18, having a substance-related diagnosis, commission of a variety of crimes, historical probation or parole violation, and having less than a high school education were associated with an increased rate of engaging in noncompliant behavior and rearrest. None of the clinical factors were directly associated with noncompliance or rearrest outcomes.

 

Honegger, L. N., & Honegger, K. S. (2019). Criminogenic factors associated with noncompliance and rearrest of mental health court participants. Criminal Justice and Behavior46(9), 1276–1294.

Keywords: adjudication, bench warrants, clinical models, criminal justice, criminogenic risk factors, jail sanctions, mental disorders, mental health court, models, noncompliance, rearrest, recidivism, statistical probability

access-available2019mental-health

The Impact of Community Treatment on Recidivism Among Mental Health Court Participants

Authors: Woojae Han, Allison D. Redlich
Journal: Psychiatric Services

Objective: A core component of mental health courts (MHCs) is the provision of community treatment in order to reduce arrests. However, research on the components of treatment received by MHC participants is rare. This study examined the impact of community treatment on arrests in an MHC sample (N=357) and a sample from the traditional criminal justice system (N=384).

 

Methods: Data were from the MacArthur MHC Project, which includes objective and subjective information from four MHCs with comparison samples at each site. Interview data were collected for six months before and six months after entry into the MHC or legal system. National data from arrest records over one year were also obtained. Treatment-related variables were compliance (appointments and medication), perceptions (motivation and perceived voluntariness), and use of nine types of community treatment. A fixed-effects regression controlled for selection bias between groups.

 

Results: The regression model indicated significant increases in treatment motivation and use of community mental health and substance abuse services among MHC participants, compared with treatment-as-usual participants; however, the perceived voluntariness of treatment decreased in the MHC group. For the treatment-as-usual group, none of the treatment variables were associated with future arrest. For the MHC group, increased medication compliance and use of mental health services were associated with a significant decrease in arrests.

 

Conclusions: Consistent with the MHC goals, findings indicated increases in receipt of community treatment among MHC participants. For the MHC sample, but not the treatment-as-usual sample, increased treatment was associated with reduced recidivism.

 

Han, W., & Redlich, A. D. (2015). The Impact of Community Treatment on Recidivism Among Mental Health Court Participants. Psychiatric Services67(4), 384–390.

 

access-available2015mental-health

More of the Same? Treatment in Mental Health Courts

Author: Mary Lee Luskin
Journal: Law and Human Behavior

Despite the centrality of community treatment to the identity and mission of mental health courts, research on what treatment is actually provided by mental health courts is scarce. Using longitudinal interview data from a large, well-established mental health court, this study describes the context, amount, and types of treatment for 82 mental health court participants (MHC) and a matched sample of 89 defendants (TAU) who underwent regular criminal court processing. The study compared treatment from the period 6 months prior to entry into the mental health court or arrest to that at a 6-month follow-up. Multivariate analyses were used to estimate the effect of mental health court participation on the amount of outpatient treatment, controlling for demographic, clinical, and legal variables. The research found that mental health court participation increased the frequency of outpatient treatment, but that social services and treatment specialized to address criminal risk factors were uncommon both at the baseline and at the 6-month follow-up. At the baseline, a majority of both samples reported that they had received outpatient treatment, but the MHC sample reported more frequent and more varied treatment. At the 6-month follow-up, the differences between the 2 samples were greater, with the wider gap resulting not only from improvements in the MHC but also from deterioration in the treatment status of the TAU sample.

 

Luskin, M. L. (2013). More of the same? Treatment in mental health courts. Law and Human Behavior37(4), 255–266.

Keywords: adjudication, court referrals, court-monitored treatment, justice system, mental health, mental health courts, mental health services, mentally ill offenders, treatment

special-access-required2013mental-health

Mental Health Courts and the Complex Issue of Mentally Ill Offenders

Authors: Amy Watson, Patricia Hanrahan, Daniel J. Luchins, Arthur J. Lurigio
Journal: Psychiatric Services

Mental health courts are emerging in communities across the country to address the growing number of individuals with serious mental illness in jails and the complex issues they present to the courts. Based on concepts of therapeutic jurisprudence and patterned after drug courts, mental health courts attempt to prevent criminalization and recidivism by providing critical mental health services. The authors describe mental health courts in Broward County, Florida; King County, Washington; Anchorage, Alaska; and Marion County, Indiana. Each of these courts is designed to meet the specific needs and resources of its jurisdiction. The courts’ experiences suggest that involving all players from the beginning is essential. The authors discuss the issues of due process, availability of services, and control of resources, which must be addressed before mental health courts are widely implemented.

 

Watson, A., Hanrahan, P., Luchins, D., & Lurigio, A. (2001). Mental Health Courts and the Complex Issue of Mentally Ill Offenders. Psychiatric Services52(4), 477–481.

 

access-available2001mental-health

Why do Mental Health Courts Work? A Confluence of Treatment, Support & Adroit Judicial Supervision

Authors: Michelle Edgely
Journal: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry

The article contributes to the understanding of ‘what works’ in mental health courts (MHCs). There are now almost 400 MHCs in the US and more worldwide. A substantial body of evidence demonstrates that MHCs can succeed in reducing recidivism among offenders who suffer mental disorders. This article argues that MHCs succeed when they have achieved the right confluence of essential elements, including providing evidence-based treatment and psychosocial supports and using adroit judge-craft. After a brief review of some of the studies demonstrating MHC success, this article discusses the research into the necessary foundations of rehabilitation programs. It is argued that, although treatment and psychosocial services should be supplied within an evidence-based framework, neither of the two leading conceptual models – Risk–Needs–Responsivity and the Good Lives Model – are empirically proven with offenders who suffer from mental disorders. Despite the absence of proof, the Good Lives Model is argued to be appropriate for MHCs because it is normatively consonant with therapeutic jurisprudence. The MHC judge is another essential element. The judicial role is assayed to elucidate how it functions to promote the rehabilitation of offenders with mental disorders. It is argued that the role of the MHC judge during supervisory status hearings is to establish a therapeutic alliance and practice motivational psychology with each MHC participant.

 

Edgely, M. (2014). Why do mental health courts work? A confluence of treatment, support & adroit judicial supervision. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry37(6), 572–580.

Keywords: mental health courts, offender rehabilitation, offenders with mental illness, problem-solving courts, problem-solving judges

access-available2014mental-health

Drug Courts and Mental Health Courts: Implications for Social Work

Authors: Sabrina W. Tyuse, Donald M. Linhorst
Journal: Health & Social Work

In recent years communities across the United States have instituted specialized criminal courts for defendants with substance abuse disorders and mental illness. These specialized courts seek to prevent incarceration and facilitate community-based treatment for offenders, while at the same time protecting public safety. The authors describe two types of specialized courts: drug courts and mental health courts. They critically examine the strengths and weaknesses of these courts and conclude with implications for social work education, practice, research, and advocacy.

 

Tyuse, S. W., & Linhorst, D. M. (2005). Drug Courts and Mental Health Courts: Implications for Social Work. Health & Social Work30(3), 233–240.

Keywords: drug courts, mental health courts, mental illness, specialized courts, substance abuse

special-access-required2005mental-health

Fighting America’s Highest Incarceration Rates with Offender Programming: Process Evaluation Implications from the Louisiana 22nd Judicial District Reentry Court

Authors: J. Mitchell Miller, David N. Khey
Journal: American Journal of Criminal Justice

Reentry programs, when adequately funded and delivered with fidelity, can render recidivism reduction and other positive outcomes such as abstinence and employment stability. This paper reports process evaluation findings for the Louisiana 22nd Judicial District Reentry Court program, a joint SAMHSA/BJA-sponsored multiphase programming intervention for high-risk/high-need offenders featuring job readiness training in the Louisiana State Penitentiary at Angola and transition services during reentry, including program engagement, job placement, and treatment services continuation in the community under strict judicial supervision. Research procedures entailed 1) observation of court appearances, treatment team meetings, educational activities, and counseling sessions, 2) review of all program participant case files enabling progress tracking, and 3) in-depth and focus group interviews with program stakeholders both at Angola and post-release in community settings. Findings relate the evidence based nature and quality of services delivery to date, as well as fidelity demonstrated across major programmatic domains. Program improvement opportunities, outcome evaluation implications, and performance measures signaling early success center discussion around vanguard elements of the court and evaluation design, respectively.

 

Miller, J. M., & Khey, D. N. (2017). Fighting America’s Highest Incarceration Rates with Offender Programming: Process Evaluation Implications from the Louisiana 22nd Judicial District Reentry Court. American Journal of Criminal Justice : AJCJ; Louisville, 42(3), 574–588.

Keywords: offender programming, program fidelity, reentry court

access-available2017reentry

The Supervision to Aid Reentry (STAR) Programme: Enhancing the Social Capital of Ex-offenders

Author: Caitlin J. Taylor
Journal: Probation Journal

This article explores a central finding from a process evaluation of a federal reentry court programme entitled the Supervision to Aid Reentry (STAR) programme in Philadelphia, PA, USA. Using inductive and deductive analyses, results revealed that the STAR programme helps participants build social capital by encouraging family involvement as well as the development of relationships among programme participants. Family involvement and relationships among participants were found to offer participants social and emotional support as well as access to felon-friendly employment opportunities.

 

Taylor, C. J. (2013). The Supervision to Aid Reentry (STAR) programme: Enhancing the social capital of ex-offenders. Probation Journal60(2), 119–135.

Keywords: courts, desistance, probation, relationships, supervision

access-available2013reentry

Judicial Perspectives on Family Drug Treatment Courts

Authors: Judge Leonard P. Edwards, Judge James A. Ray
Journal: Juvenile and Family Court Journal

Family Drug Treatment Courts are a specialized calendar or docket that operates within the juvenile dependency court. These courts provide the setting for a collaborative effort by the court and all the participants in the child protection system to come together in a non-adversarial setting to determine the individual treatment needs of substance-abusing parents whose children are under the jurisdiction of the dependency court. This article is intended to give judges and others a judicial perspective on FDTCs, and to offer some assistance for those who are operating or who are considering creating one.

 

Edwards, J. L. P., & Ray, J. J. A. (2005). Judicial Perspectives on Family Drug Treatment Courts. Juvenile and Family Court Journal56(3), 1–27.

 

access-available2005family

Therapeutic Jurisprudence in Practice: Changes in Family Treatment Court Norms Over Time

Author: Suzanna Fay-Ramirez
Journal: Law & Social Inquiry

Family treatment court (FTC) is an example of an increasing number of problem-centered courts currently operating in the United States. Problem-centered courts such as FTC encompass the ideas of therapeutic jurisprudence but operate within the broader court system. Presented are the results of an FTC case study that seeks to understand the evolution of courtroom norms and practice over time. Observations of courtroom interactions and interviews with courtroom personnel show that initial observations are consistent with the ideals of therapeutic jurisprudence. However, over time, daily demands and pressures on the courtroom undermine the therapeutic approach.

 

Fay‐Ramirez, S. (2015). Therapeutic Jurisprudence in Practice: Changes in Family Treatment Court Norms Over Time. Law & Social Inquiry40(1), 205–236.

 

access-available2015family

Convicted Driving-While-Impaired Offenders’ Views on Effectiveness of Sanctions and Treatment

Authors: Sandra Lapham, Elizabeth England-Kennedy
Journal: Qualitative Health Research

In this article we analyze qualitative data from a multiple-method, longitudinal study drawn from 15-year follow-up interviews with a subsample of 82 individuals arrested for driving while intoxicated in a southwestern state (1989–1995). We explore reactions to the arrest and court-mandated sanctions, including legal punishments, mandated interventions, and/or participation in programs aimed at reducing recidivism. Key findings include experiencing certain negative emotional reactions to the arrest, reactions to being jailed, experiencing other court-related sanctions as deterring driving-while-intoxicated behavior, and generally negative opinions regarding court-mandated interventions. We discuss interviewees’ complex perspectives on treatment and program participation and their effects on lessening recidivism, and we offer suggestions for reducing recidivism based on our findings.

 

Lapham, S., & England-Kennedy, E. (2011). Convicted Driving-While-Impaired Offenders’ Views on Effectiveness of Sanctions and Treatment. Qualitative Health Research.

Keywords: addiction, alcohol, alcoholism, behavior, comparative analysis, intervention programs, risk, substance abuse

access-available2011dui-dwi

What Do Clients Achieve in Drug/DUI Court? Examining Intended and Unintended Outcomes

Authors: Bin Liang, Michael A. Long, J. David Knottnerus
Journal: Justice System Journal

Compared to a growing number of quantitative studies that focus on evaluating drug/DUI court process (e.g., retention) and outcomes (e.g., reducing recidivism), very few studies qualitatively and systematically examine clients’ perceptions and experiences in these programs. Based on content analysis of 229 letters written by clients to Tulsa County DUI and drug programs in Oklahoma, this study examines the potential (mis)match between the stated official goals of the program and major achievements and progress self-reported by clients. Our analysis shows that in addition to abstinence, compliance, and techniques for success, a significant portion of clients’ achievements went beyond the administrative expectations. Rather, the program transformed clients’ lives in a holistic way and affected diverse aspects of their lives. These findings should encourage the legislature and practitioners to look beyond drug/DUI court supervision/discipline in evaluating clients’ progress and to incorporate elements reported by clients in building a more successful program.

 

Liang, B., Long, M. A., & Knottnerus, J. D. (2016). What Do Clients Achieve in Drug/DUI Court? Examining Intended and Unintended Outcomes. Justice System Journal; Williamsburg37(3), 272-289,292.

Keywords: court administration, criminal justice, specialized courts

access-available2016dui-dwi

A National Survey of U.S. Juvenile Mental Health Courts

Authors: Lisa Callahan, Joseph Cocozza, Henry J. Steadman, Sheila Tillman
Journal: Psychiatric Services

Objective: The authors surveyed U.S. juvenile mental health courts (JMHCs).

 

Methods: Forty-one were identified in 15 states, and 34 returned surveys; one was completed on the basis of published information. Topics included the court’s history, youths served, inclusion and exclusion criteria, the court process, and services provided.

 

Results: Half (51%) reported that the juvenile court was responsible for the program; for 11% the probation agency had the responsibility, and 17% reported shared responsibility by these entities. Fifty-one percent reported that all youths with any mental disorder diagnosis are eligible. The most commonly reported participant diagnoses are bipolar disorder (27%), depression (23%), and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (16%). Seventy percent currently include participants with felony offenses, and 91% with misdemeanors; 67% exclude status offenses, and 21% exclude violent offenses. A guilty plea was required by 63%. Incentives to participate included dismissal of charges (40%), reduction in court hearings (43%), praise by the judge and probation officer (60%), reduction in curfew restrictions (23%), and gift cards or gifts (71%). Sanctions for not participating included increased supervision or hearings (60%), performing community service (54%), and placement in residential detention (60%). Most JMHCs reported use of a multidisciplinary team to coordinate community-based services to prevent protracted justice system involvement.

 

Conclusions: JMHCs are being developed in the absence of systematically collected outcome data. Although they resemble adult mental health courts, they have unique features that are specific to addressing the complex needs of youths with mental disorders involved in the justice system. These include diagnostic and treatment challenges and issues related to involving families and schools.

 

Callahan, L., Cocozza, J., Steadman, H. J., & Tillman, S. (2012). A National Survey of U.S. Juvenile Mental Health Courts. Psychiatric Services63(2), 130–134.

Keywords: court administration, criminal justice, specialized courts

access-available2012juvenile

Feasibility, Acceptability, and Initial Findings from a Community-Based Cultural Mental Health Intervention for American Indian Youth and Their Families

Authors: Jessica Goodkind, Marianna LaNoue, Christopher Lee, Lance Freeland, Rachel Freund
Journal: Journal of Community Psychology

Through a CBPR partnership, university and American Indian (AI) tribal members developed and tested Our Life intervention to promote mental health of AI youth and their families by addressing root causes of violence, trauma, and substance abuse. Based on premises that well-being is built on a foundation of traditional cultural beliefs and practices, and that it requires a process of healing and understanding, the 6-month intervention had four components: 1) recognizing/healing historical trauma; 2) reconnecting to traditional culture; 3) parenting/social skill-building; and 4) strengthening family relationships through equine-assisted activities. Feasibility, acceptability, appropriateness, and preliminary outcomes were examined in a mixed-method within-group design. Engagement and retention were challenging, suggesting that families faced numerous barriers to participation. Youth who completed the program experienced significant increases in cultural identity, self-esteem, positive coping strategies, quality of life, and social adjustment. Qualitative data supported these findings and suggested additional positive effects.

 

Goodkind, J., LaNoue, M., Freeland, C. L. and L., & Freund, R. (2012). Feasibility, Acceptability, and Initial Findings from a Community-Based Cultural Mental Health Intervention for American Indian Youth and Their Families. Journal of Community Psychology40(4), 381–405.

Keywords: court administration, criminal justice, specialized courts

access-available2012tribal

Perceptions about Recovery Needs and Drug-Avoidance Recovery Behaviors among Youth in Substance Abuse Treatment

Authors: Rachel Gonzales, MPH, M. Douglas Anglin, Ph.D, Deborah C. Glik, Sc.D, Christina Zavalza
Journal: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs

Objective: This study used mixed methods to explore youth attitudes about recovery-related needs and important drug-avoidance behaviors after treatment.

 

Method: Focus groups were conducted with 118 substance using youth in treatment (four residential and 10 outpatient settings) throughout Los Angeles County.

 

Results: The average age was 17.4 (SD = 2.9); 78.3% were male, 66.1% Latino; and most were in treatment for primary marijuana (40.9%) or methamphetamine (30.4%) abuse. Quantitatve results from the drug-avoidance activity survey identified the following factors youth rated as important to their recovery after treatment: lifestyle improvement activities (95.7%); changing personal drug behaviors (89.6%); drug environment/culture change activities (82.5%); with the least important being therapeutic activities (78.5%). Qualitative findings from focus groups that asked what youth think are important for recovery programs to address after treatment revealed the following four areas: (1) recovery promotion to developmentally appropriate activities (95%); (2) facilitating the use of coping skills to deal with stress (85%); (3) offering alternative recovery support options (not just abstinence only) (75%); and (4) continuing to provide substance use education (65%).

 

Conclusion: Findings highlight essential aspects of recovery in terms of need and drug-avoidance behaviors considered important to youth in treatment. Such information will help to better address clinical and recovery support models aimed at relapse prevention to ensure that the perceived problems of substance-abusing youth are adequately met.

 

Gonzalez, Rachel, Anglin, M. Douglas, Glik, Deborah C., Zavalza, Christina. (2013). Perceptions about Recovery Needs and Drug-Avoidance Recovery Behaviors among Youth in Substance Abuse Treatment. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs45(4), 297–303.

Keywords: drug-avoidance activities, recovery needs, youth substance abuse

access-available2013juvenile

Predicting Nonresponse to Juvenile Drug Court Interventions

Authors: Colleen A. Halliday-Boykins, Cindy M. Schaeffer
Journal: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment

Using data from a recent randomized clinical trial involving juvenile drug court (JDC), youth marijuana use trajectories and the predictors of treatment nonresponse were examined. Participants were 118 juvenile offenders meeting diagnostic criteria for substance use disorders assigned to JDC and their families. Urine drug screen results were gathered from weekly court visits for 6 months, and youth reported their marijuana use over 12 months. Semiparametric mixture modeling jointly estimated and classified trajectories of both marijuana use indices. Youth were classified into responder versus nonresponder trajectory groups based on both outcomes. Regression analyses examined pretreatment individual, family, and extrafamilial predictors of nonresponse. Results indicated that youth whose caregivers reported illegal drug use pretreatment were almost 10 times as likely to be classified into the nonresponder trajectory group. No other variable significantly distinguished drug use trajectory groups. Findings have implications for the design of interventions to improve JDC outcomes.

 

Halliday-Boykins, C. A., Schaeffer, C. M., Henggeler, S. W., Chapman, J. E., Cunningham, P. B., Randall, J., & Shapiro, S. B. (2010). Predicting nonresponse to juvenile drug court interventions. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment39(4), 318–328.

Keywords: adolescent substance abuse, juvenile drug court, trajectory outcomes, treatment nonresponse

access-available2010juvenile

Predicting Success and Failure in Juvenile Drug Treatment Court: A Meta-Analytic Review

Authors: David M. Stein, Scott Deberard, Kendra Homan
Journal: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment

This meta-analysis summarizes 41 studies that examined associations between characteristics of adolescent participants in juvenile drug treatment court and outcomes (i.e., premature termination, recidivism). A summary of within- and post-program recidivism rates was calculated, as was a global estimate of the premature drop-out rate. One clear trend in the available studies was the dramatic difference in recidivism rates for adolescents who succeed in graduating from drug court, relative to those who do not. In addition, the review revealed that behavior patterns evidenced during drug court participation were most strongly associated with both the probability of graduating successfully from drug court and recidivism (e.g., few in-program arrests, citations, detentions, and referrals; greater length of time in program or amount of treatment; lower use of drug and alcohol use, few positive urine screens, greater school attendance). Unfortunately, non-white participants tend to have a lower probability of graduation from drug court and experience higher recidivism during and following the program. Available juvenile drug treatment court studies confirm a number of reputed adolescent risk factors associated with substance abuse, criminality, treatment failure, and recidivism among adolescents (e.g., higher levels of emotional and behavioral problems, higher levels and severity of pre-program substance abuse, male gender). Suggestions for improving the effects of juvenile drug treatment court based on key results of the meta-analysis are offered.

 

Stein, D. M., Deberard, S., & Homan, K. (2013). Predicting success and failure in juvenile drug treatment court: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment44(2), 159–168.

Keywords: adolescent, delinquency, drug court, meta-analysis, review, substance abuse, treatment

special-access-required2013juvenile

Adaptive Interventions in Drug Court: A Pilot Experiment

Authors: Douglas B. Marlowe, David S. Festinger, Patricia L. Arabia, Karen L. Dugosh, Kathleen M. Benasutti, Jason R. Croft, James R. McKay
Journal: Criminal Justice Review

This pilot study (N = 30) experimentally examined the effects of an adaptive intervention in an adult misdemeanor drug court. The adaptive algorithm adjusted the frequency of judicial status hearings and clinical case-management sessions according to pre-specified criteria in response to participants’ ongoing performance in the program. Results revealed the adaptive algorithm was acceptable to both clients and staff, feasible to implement with greater than 85% fidelity, and showed promise for eliciting clinically meaningful improvements in drug abstinence and graduation rates. Estimated effect sizes ranged from 0.40 to 0.60 across various dependent measures. Compared to drug court as-usual, participants in the adaptive condition were more likely to receive responses from the drug court team for inadequate performance in the program and received those responses after a substantially shorter period of time. This suggests the adaptive algorithm may have more readily focused the drug court team’s attention on poorly-performing individuals, thus allowing the team to “nip problems in the bud” before they developed too fully. These preliminary data justify additional research evaluating the effects of the adaptive algorithm in a fully powered experimental trial.

 

Marlowe, D. B., Festinger, D. S., Arabia, P. L., Dugosh, K. L., Benasutti, K. M., Croft, J. R., & McKay, J. R. (2008). Adaptive Interventions in Drug Court: A Pilot Experiment. Criminal Justice Review.

Keywords: adaptive treatment, adult treatment courts, antisocial personality disorder, criminal justice, drug courts

access-available2008adult

Disparities in Criminal Court Referrals to Drug Treatment and Prison for Minority Men

Authors: Nancy Nicosia, PhD, John M. MacDonald, PhD, and Jeremy Arkes, PhD
Journal: American Journal of Public Health

Objectives: We investigated the extent to which racial/ethnic disparities in prison and diversion to drug treatment were explained by current arrest and criminal history characteristics among drug-involved offenders, and whether those disparities decreased after California’s Proposition 36, which mandated first- and second-time nonviolent drug offenders drug treatment instead of prison.

 

Methods: We analyzed administrative data on approximately 170 000 drug-involved arrests in California between 1995 and 2005. We examined odds ratios from logistic regressions for prison and diversion across racial/ethnic groups before and after Proposition 36.

 

Results: We found significant disparities in prison and diversion for Blacks and Hispanics relative to Whites. These disparities decreased after controlling for current arrest and criminal history characteristics for Blacks. Proposition 36 was also associated with a reduction in disparities, but more so for Hispanics than Blacks.

 

Conclusions: Disparities in prison and diversion to drug treatment among drug-involved offenders affect hundreds of thousands of citizens and might reinforce imbalances in criminal justice and health outcomes. Our study indicated that standardized criminal justice policies that improved access to drug treatment might contribute to alleviating some share of these disparities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)

 

Nicosia, N., MacDonald, J. M., & Arkes, J. (2013). Disparities in criminal court referrals to drug treatment and prison for minority men. American Journal of Public Health103(6), e77–e84.

 

access-available2013adult

Drug Courts and Recidivism: The Results of an Evaluation Using Two Comparison Groups and Multiple Indicators of Recidivism:

Authors: Cassia Spohn, Ph.D., R.K. Piper, Ph.D., Tom Martin, Ph.D., Erika Davis Frenzel, Ph.D.
Journal: Journal of Drug Issues

Increases in the number of drug offenders appearing in state and federal courts, coupled with mounting evidence of both the linkages between drug use and crime and the efficacy of drug treatment programs, led many jurisdictions to implement drug treatment courts. Although these courts vary on a number of dimensions, most are designed to reduce drug use and criminal behavior among drug-involved offenders. This study evaluates the effectiveness of one drug court–the Douglas County (Omaha), Nebraska Drug Court–in reducing offender recidivism. We use a variety of analytical techniques to compare drug court participants and offenders in two matched comparison groups on a number of measures of recidivism. Our results reveal that drug court participants have substantially lower rates of recidivism than traditionally adjudicated felony drug offenders, and that the differences in recidivism rates between drug court participants and drug offenders who participated in a diversion program prior to the implementation of the drug court disappeared once we controlled for the offender’s assessed level of risk, as indicated by his/her LSI score.

 

Spohn, C., Piper, R. K., Martin, T., & Frenzel, E. D. (2016). Drug Courts and Recidivism: The Results of an Evaluation Using Two Comparison Groups and Multiple Indicators of Recidivism: Journal of Drug Issueshttps://doi.org/10.1177/002204260103100109

 

special-access-required2001adult

Employment and Work Among Drug Court Clients: 12-Month Outcomes

Authors: Carl Leukefeld, J. Matthew Webster, Michele Staton-Tindall, Jamieson Duvall
Journal: Substance Use & Misuse

Employment contributes to drug abuse treatment success and is an important treatment outcome (Institute of Medicine, 1990). However, few tailored employment interventions are available. This project developed an employment intervention focused on obtaining, maintaining, and upgrading employment. The current study, approved by an IRB, uses 12-month outcomes to examine intervention dosage effects. Participants were 500 clients who entered two Kentucky drug court programs between March 2000 and November 2002. Measures included demographics, drug/alcohol use, criminality, employment, and education measures from the Addiction Severity Index (McLellan, Luborsky, Woody, and O’Brien, 1980) as well as specific employment measures. To examine the intervention, the number of intervention upgrading sessions attended was divided by the number of possible upgrading sessions. Session attendance percentages were then used to median split into a low upgrading group and a high upgrading group and were compared with the no intervention group. These three groups were used in a series of ANOVA and chi-square analyses to examine differences at 12-month follow-up. When employment, legal work, illegal work, and employment problems were examined for one year and 30 days at follow-up, there were significant effects for jobs in the past year, days worked at a legitimate job in both the past year as well as 30 days, and income from a legitimate job in the past year. Participants in the high upgrade group received maximum employment benefits. Since legal earnings increased and illegal earnings decreased, drug-user treatment programs and practitioners should assess and refer clients to employment interventions. Tailored employment interventions should be tested to keep drug users in treatment and to increase treatment outcome. The study’s limitations are noted and future needed research is suggested. The study was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse.

 

Stein, D. M., Deberard, S., & Homan, K. (2013). Predicting success and failure in juvenile drug treatment court: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment44(2), 159–168.

Keywords: drug courts, drug user treatment, employment, evidence-based, follow-up, intervention, outcomes, protective factors, work

special-access-required2007adult

Everyday Hassles: Barriers to Recovery in Drug Court

Authors: Elaine Wolf, Corey Colyer
Journal: Journal of Drug Issues

Participants in a drug court are subjects in a study that analyzes the relationship between the everyday problems they identify in discussions with the judge and their patterns of recovery, as measured by compliance with program requirements. 130 types of problems mentioned in court revealed that problems generally are those associated with the individuals themselves (e.g., their physical health), their immediate social milieu (e.g., domestic abuse), and the larger social structure in which they negotiate their lives (e.g., acquiring Medicaid benefits). The most frequently mentioned types of problems were “structural” in nature. Patterns of recovery identified in program graduates resulted in labels of “clear sailers,” “late bloomers,” “occasional stumblers,” and “chronic stumblers.” A case study of an occasional stumbler reveals some ways in which everyday hassles and her responses to them affected her recovery.

 

Wolf, E., & Colyer, C. (2016). Everyday Hassles: Barriers to Recovery in Drug Court. Journal of Drug Issues.

 

access-available2016adult

Factors Associated with Treatment Compliance and its Effects on Retention Among Participants in a Court-Mandated Treatment Program

Authors: Jayadeep Patra, Louis Gliksman, Benedikt Fischer, Brenda Newton-Taylor, Steven Belenko, Michel Ferrari, Stephanie Kersta, Jürgen Rehm
Journal: Contemporary Drug Problems: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly

Drug treatment court (DTC) programs have been implemented and promoted in American as well as Canadian judicial systems as an effective tool for reducing criminal recidivism rates. An evaluation of the program in Toronto revealed that the drug court participants’ substance abuse and criminal behaviors are reduced while they are under the drug courts’ jurisdiction, and to some extent recidivism is reduced after participants leave the program. However, while we know from the literature that there are positive effects of the program, the characteristics of drug-dependent offenders who benefit the most from the DTC are less clear. The main purpose of this study was to understand where the prediction from literature, that compliance determines success in treatment, fails. Thus, study participants were divided into two groups: 1) those who might normally be expected to not comply yet who do in the long run (unexpected retention, UR); and 2) those who might normally be expected to comply, but who do not (unexpected expulsions, UE). Discriminant function analysis showed that participants considered UR were subject to conditions of social disadvantage yet quite motivated; whereas UE participants had no housing concern, no indication of family problems, but had additional criminal justice involvement at an early stage of the program. Implications for strengthening DTCs as well as suggestions for future research in the drug treatment and drug court fields are discussed.

 

Patra, J., Gliksman, L., Fischer, B., Newton-Taylor, B., Belenko, S., Ferrari, M., Kersta, S., & Rehm, J. (2010). Factors associated with treatment compliance and its effects on retention among participants in a court-mandated treatment program. Contemporary Drug Problems: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly37(2), 289–313.

Keywords: client characteristics, court referrals, criminal behavior, drug abuse, drug treatment court programs, drug-dependent offender characteristics, program evaluation, program retention, recidivism reduction, retention, substance abuse treatment, treatment compliance

special-access-required2010adult

Identifying Predictors of Treatment Outcome in a Drug Court Program

Authors: John M. Roll, Michael Prendergast, Kimberly Richardson, William Burdon, Anthony Ramirez
Journal: American Journal of Drug & Alcohol Abuse

Drug courts are popular for dealing with drug-abusing offenders. However, relatively little is known about participant characteristics that reliably predict either success or failure in these treatment settings. In this article, we report on 99 individuals who were enrolled in a drug court program (approximately one-half of whom successfully completed the program). Using, logistic regression techniques we identified 2 significant predictors of outcome. First, individuals who were employed at the time of their enrollment into the drug court program were more likely to successfully complete the treatment program. Second, individuals with a history of illicit intravenous drug use were less likely to complete the program.

 

Roll, J. M., Prendergast, M., Richardson, K., Burdon, W., & Ramirez, A. (2005). Identifying predictors of treatment outcome in a drug court program. American Journal of Drug & Alcohol Abuse31(4), 641–656.

Keywords: drug abuse treatment, drug court program, predictor of treatment outcomes

access-available2005adult

Meeting Health and Psychological Needs of Women in Drug Treatment Court

Authors: Diane S. Morse, MD, Catherine Cerulli, JD, PhD, Precious Bedell, MA, John L. Wilson, Katherine Thomas, Mona Mittal, PhD, J. Steven Lamberti, MD, Geoffrey Williams, MD, PhD, Jennifer Silverstein, Aninda Mukherjee, Donna Walck, MS, Nancy Chin, PhD
Journal: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment

We explored healthcare-related experiences of women drug court participants through combining context from the socio-ecological model with motivation needs for health behavior as indicated by self-determination theory. Five focus groups with 8 women drug court participants, 8 court staff, and 9 community service providers were examined using qualitative framework analysis. Themes emerged across the socio-ecological model and were cross-mapped with self-determination theory-defined motivation needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence. Socio-ecological levels contained experiences either supporting or eroding women’s motivation needs: 1) intrapersonal challenges participants termed an “evil cycle” of relapse, recidivism, trauma, and life challenges; 2) interpersonal context of parenting and stigma involving features of this “evil cycle”; 3) institutions with logistical barriers to legal and medical assistance; 4) community resources inadequate to support living and employment needs. Self-determination theory helps explain motivation required to address the women’s healthcare needs and multiple demands at all levels of the socio-ecological model.

 

Morse, D. S., Cerulli, C., Bedell, P., Wilson, J. L., Thomas, K., Mittal, M., Lamberti, J. S., Williams, G., Silverstein, J., Mukherjee, A., Walck, D., & Chin, N. (2014). Meeting health and psychological needs of women in drug treatment court. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment46(2), 150–157.

Keywords: drug treatment court, self-determination theory, socio-ecological model, trauma, women

access-available2014adult

Long Term Effects of Drug Court Participation: Evidence from a 15-year Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Brook Kearley, Denise Gottfredson
Journal: Journal of Experimental Criminology

Substance use disorders and related negative outcomes are on the rise in America. Among jail and prison populations, approximately half of all inmates meet DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence or abuse. Two decades of drug court research indicate that these specialized courts reduce recidivism among participants when compared to traditional probation processing. However, few high quality studies have been conducted and important gaps in our understanding of the model’s effectiveness and population suitability remain. Additionally, little is known regarding the long-term impacts of drug courts or the courts’ effects on outcomes beyond recidivism and drug use. One of the most rigorous primary studies to date is the randomized trial of the Baltimore City Drug Treatment Court (BCDTC). Three-year follow-up data from this study showed that participation in the program reduced recidivism and that subjects self-reported less crime and substance use than did controls. This dissertation compares 15-year recidivism, incarceration, and mortality outcomes for the 235 BCDTC subjects. Additionally, it compares differences in recidivism growth over time between the two conditions. The work extends one of the few randomized trials of an established drug court and includes a group of offenders with substantial criminal and substance abuse histories. Findings suggest that participation in Baltimore City’s Drug Treatment Court resulted in significantly fewer arrests, charges, and convictions across the 15-year follow-up period, to include several crime-specific differences in arrests and convictions. Originating court was shown to moderate the effect of drug court participation for convictions, such that those participating in the Circuit drug court had significantly better outcomes than those participating in the District drug court. Drug court participants also had significantly lower rates of growth over time in both arrests and convictions. While differences were sustained across the 15-year period, differences in the rate of growth did not appear to increase over time as hypothesized. Participation in Baltimore City’s Drug Treatment Court did not have a significant effect on total days of sentenced incarceration, nor did it have an impact on mortality risk.

 

Kearley, B., & Gottfredson, D. (2020). Long term effects of drug court participation: Evidence from a 15-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Experimental Criminology16(1), 27–47.

 

access-available2020adult

Can Drug Courts Help to Reduce Prison and Jail Populations?

Authors: Eric L. Sevigny, Harold A. Pollack, Peter R PETER REUTER
Journal: The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science

Drug courts have been widely praised as an important tool for reducing prison and jail populations by diverting drug-involved offenders into treatment rather than incarceration. Yet only a small share of offenders presenting with drug abuse or dependence are processed in drug courts. This study uses inmate self-report surveys from 2002 and 2004 to examine characteristics of the prison and jail populations in the United States and assess why so many drug-involved offenders are incarcerated. Our analysis shows that four factors have prevented drug courts from substantially lowering the flow into prisons and jails. In descending order of importance, these are: drug courts’ tight eligibility requirements, specific sentencing requirements, legal consequences of program noncompliance, and constraints in drug court capacity and funding. Drug courts will only be able to help lower prison and jail populations if substantial changes are made in eligibility and sentencing rules.

 

Sevigny, E. L., Pollack, H. A., & Reuter, P. (2013). Can Drug Courts Help to Reduce Prison and Jail Populations? The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science647(1), 190–212.

Keywords: alternatives to incarceration, drug courts, eligibility criteria, prison and jail populations

special-access-required2013adult

Examining the Use of Visual Performance Feedback in Drug Treatment Court

Authors: David S. Festinger, Karen L. Dugosh, John M. Della Porta
Journal: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology

A key component of drug courts is regular status hearings in which the judge reviews client progress and imposes sanctions or rewards for infractions or achievements; however, little is known about whether drug court clients fully understand the reasons for judicial responses and make clear connections between their behavior and judicially-imposed consequences. Thus, it is reasonable to hypothesize that graphic performance feedback can improve clients’ perceptions of procedural justice and increase the likelihood of success.

 

Festinger, D. S., Dugosh, K. L., & Della Porta, J. M. (2018). Examining the Use of Visual Performance Feedback in Drug Treatment Court. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology26(1), 85–93.

Keywords: drug court, judge-client relationship, procedural justice, status hearings, visual performance feedback

access-available2008adult

Participation in Drug Treatment Court and Time to Rearrest

Authors: Duren Banks, Denise C. Gottfredson
Journal: Justice Quarterly

This study uses an experimental design to assess the impact of a drug treatment court on nonviolent felony offenders. The drug court program combines intensive supervision, judicial monitoring, drug testing, and drug treatment to reduce recidivism and other problem behaviors. Survival analyses showed that the drug court sample had a significantly longer time to first rearrest than the control sample. Assignment to the drug court also significantly reduced the risk of drug crime failure during the follow-up period. The drug court and control samples had identical failure rates during the first 4 months of the follow-up, after which the drug court appeared to have its greatest impact on the risk of failure. Further analyses suggested that compliance with various drug court components, particularly early and continued drug treatment attendance, reduced the risk of failure among this sample.

 

Banks, D., & Gottfredson, D. C. (2004). Participation in Drug Treatment Court and Time to Rearrest*. Justice Quarterly : JQ; Abingdon21(3), 637–658.

Keywords:

special-access-required2004adult

Racial and Gender Disparities in Treatment Courts: Do They Exist and Is There Anything We Can Do to Change Them?

Authors: Timothy Ho, Shannon M. Carey, Anna M. Malsch
Journal: Journal for Advancing Justice

The data from the 142 treatment courts were merged and analyzed to examine whether there were disparities in who is accepted by treatment courts and in court graduation rates across demographic characteristics. Data analysis also focused on the features of treatment court practices that are associated with reduced disparities in graduation rates among demographic groups. The study found that males were underrepresented by about 9 percent in admissions to treatment courts compared with the general probation population; and females were over-represented compared with the general probation population. Regarding racial disparities, Whites were slightly over-represented in treatment courts compared with their respective probation population, and the proportion of Black individuals in treatment courts, except for reentry courts, was representative of their respective probation population. In reentry courts, the percentage of Black participants was significantly higher than the percentage of probationers who were White. There were no significant differences in the court graduation rates of male and female participants; however, the comparison of graduation rates across race indicated that Hispanic/Latino participants tended to have graduation rates similar to White participants. Black participants had lower graduation rates than White participants, even after controlling for education, employment, prior arrests, drugs used, and age. The provision of family/domestic counseling was significantly related to lower racial disparity. Family counselors can obtain insight into the environment and circumstances of each participant, which may produce better tailoring of treatment to participant needs.

 

Ho, T., Carey, S. M., & Malsch, A. M. (2018). Racial and Gender Disparities in Treatment Courts: Do They Exist and Is There Anything We Can Do to Change Them? Journal for Advancing Justice1, 5–34.

Keywords: best practice, drug courts, ethnicity, gender disparity, racial disparity, treatment court

access-available2018adult

Status Hearings in Drug Court: When More is Less and Less is More

Authors: David S. Festinger, Douglas B. Marlowe, Patricia A. Lee, Kimberly C. Kirby, Gregory Bovasso, A.Thomas McLellan
Journal: Drug and Alcohol Dependence

We examined the effects of increasing the number of times misdemeanor drug court clients appeared before a judge for judicial status hearings. Our previous findings showed no main effect of increased hearings during the first 14 weeks of the program. The present study examined participants’ discharge status in the program, and also explored potential interactions between client characteristics and the frequency of judicial status hearings on outcomes. Results revealed no main effects for hearing frequency on graduation status. Drug offenders who satisfied DSM-IV criteria for antisocial personality disorder (APD) achieved more weeks of urinalysis-confirmed drug abstinence when assigned to more frequent judicial status hearings, whereas subjects without APD achieved more abstinence and were more likely to graduate successfully from the program when assigned to less frequent hearings. Additionally, clients with a history of substance abuse treatment achieved more weeks of abstinence when assigned to more frequent hearings. These findings lend useful guidance to drug courts. Status hearings are expensive and time consuming and should be targeted to clients who would benefit most from them.

 

Festinger, D. S., Marlowe, D. B., Lee, P. A., Kirby, K. C., Bovasso, G., & McLellan, A. T. (2002). Status hearings in drug court: When more is less and less is more. Drug and Alcohol Dependence68(2), 151–157.

Keywords: antisocial personality, criminal justice, drug court, treatment

special-access-required2002adult

Systematic Review of the Impact of Adult Drug-Treatment Courts

Author: Randall T. Brown
Journal: Translational Research

The U.S. correctional system is overburdened with individuals suffering from substance use disorders. These illnesses also exact a heavy toll on individual and public health and well-being. Effective methods for reducing the negative impact of substance use disorders comprise critical concerns for policy makers. Drug treatment court (DTC) programs are present in more than 1800 county, tribal, and territorial jurisdictions in the United States as an alternative to incarceration for offenders with substance use disorders. This review article summarizes the available descriptive information on representative DTC populations and the observational studies of drug court participants, and it specifically reviews the available experimental effectiveness literature on DTCs. The review concludes by examining the limitations of the current literature, challenges to conducting research in drug court samples, and potential future directions for research on DTC interventions. A review of nonexperimental and quasi-experimental literature regarding the impact of DTCs points toward benefit versus traditional adjudication in averting future criminal behavior and in reducing future substance use, at least in the short term. Randomized effectiveness studies of DTCs are scant (3 were identified in the literature on U.S. adult drug courts), and methodological issues develop in combining their findings. These randomized trials failed to demonstrate a consistent effect on rearrest rates for drug-involved offenders participating in DTC versus typical adjudication. The 2 studies examining reconviction and reincarceration, however, demonstrated reductions for the DTC group versus those typically adjudicated.

 

Brown, R. T. (2010). Systematic review of the impact of adult drug-treatment courts. Translational Research155(6), 263–274.

 

access-available2010adult

The Impact of Drug Treatment Courts on Recovery: A Systematic Review

Authors: Ciska Wittouck,, Anne Dekkers, Brice De Ruyver, Wouter Vanderplasschen, Freya Vander Laenen
Journal: The Scientific World Journal

Introduction: Earlier reviews regarding the effectiveness of Drug Treatment Courts (DTCs) reported a reduction in reoffending and substance use. Although substance users suffer from other difficulties than drug use and judicial issues, none of these reviews focused on outcomes or effects of DTCs on drug-related life domains, such as social relationships, employment, or health. Therefore, the present paper aims to review the impact of adult DTCs on substance use and drug-related life domains.

 

Method: Primary studies were systematically searched in Web of Knowledge. Observational and controlled evaluation studies of adult DTCs were considered eligible if substance use and/or drug-related life domains were measured.

 

Results: Moderately positive results were found with respect to within-program substance use. Few studies used drug-related life domains as an outcome measure and most of them yielded no effects. Employment and family relations ameliorated when specific interventions were used.

 

Discussion: DTCs yield beneficial outcomes and effects regarding within-program substance use. However, evidence regarding the impact of DTCs on post-program drug and alcohol use and on other drug-related life domains is scarce. These life domains and thus QoL possibly can be improved by DTCs if specifically targeted. Future research is warranted.

 

Wittouck, C., Dekkers, A., De Ruyver, B., Vanderplasschen, W., & Vander Laenen, F. (2013). The Impact of Drug Treatment Courts on Recovery: A Systematic Review. The Scientific World Journal2013, e493679.

 

access-available2013adult

The Long Term Effectiveness of Drug Treatment Court on Reducing Recidivism and Predictors of Voluntary Withdrawal

Authors: Jeremy Dean Jewell, Paul Rose, Rachel Bush, Kayla Bartz
Journal: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction

While drug treatment courts (DTCs) in the United States have proliferated, there is a shortage of research on their long term effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effectiveness of a DTC and predictors of withdrawal. Retrospective data were analyzed from adults offered admission into a Midwestern DTC. Those who graduated from the program (N = 95), voluntarily withdrew (N = 35), or voluntarily declined (N = 16) entry were compared. Various measures of recidivism were gathered up to on average 3.5 years after graduation, withdrawal, or decline. Outcomes for graduates were superior to the other two groups on almost all measures of recidivism even after controlling for demographic and background variables. Younger age of first arrest and lesser maximum class of prior offense were found to predict a higher likelihood of withdrawal. Findings confirm previous research regarding the effectiveness of DTCs though further study regarding the predictors of withdrawal is warranted.

 

Jewell, J. D., Rose, P., Bush, R., & Bartz, K. (2017). The long term effectiveness of drug treatment court on reducing recidivism and predictors of voluntary withdrawal. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction15(1), 28–39.

Keywords: drug abuse, drug court, drug treatment court, long term care, recidivism, substance abuse, substance abuse treatment, treatment

access-available2017adult

The Strength of the Participant-Judge Relationship Predicts Better Drug Court Outcomes

Authors: Craig G. A. Jones, Richard Kemp
Journal: Psychiatry, Psychology and Law

This article explores mechanisms underpinning the impact of the drug court judge on participant outcomes. There were 93 participants taking part in a randomized controlled trial of intensive judicial supervision (IJS) at the Parramatta Drug Court, Sydney, Australia. IJS participants appeared before the judge twice weekly and the supervision as usual (SAU) participants appeared once weekly. A questionnaire assessed the extent to which participants formed a strong relationship with the judge, their understanding of programme requirements and perceived deterrence. IJS participants were more likely than SAU participants to indicate that they have a good relationship with the judge (73.9% vs. 44.7%, p =.004). Participants who formed a closer bond had lower odds of substance use (odds ratio = 0.46, p =.004). The drug court judge appears to be crucial to the drug court rehabilitation process. The formation of strong interpersonal bonds that appears to underpin this effect is consistent with the therapeutic jurisprudential principles upon which drug courts are based.

 

Jones, C. G. A., & Kemp, R. I. (2014). The Strength of the Participant-Judge Relationship Predicts Better Drug Court Outcomes. Psychiatry, Psychology & Law21(2), 165–175.

Keywords: celerity, deterrence, drug courts, education, judicial alliance, judicial supervision, therapeutic jurisprudence

special-access-required2014adult

Treatment Inside the Drug Treatment Court: The Who, What, Where, and How of Treatment Services

Authors: Faye S. Taxman, Jeffrey Bouffard
Journal: Substance Use & Misuse

Drug treatment courts provide a new strategy for providing treatment services to offenders within the criminal justice system. With over 400 drug treatment courts in the United States, the courts have evolved to provide treatment services under different models. This article will review the different typologies for delivery of treatment services to drug user offenders in the drug treatment court setting, and it will raise questions about some of the difficult issues underscoring an integrated service delivery model. The paper then identifies some research questions for the future.

 

Taxman, F. S., & Bouffard, J. (2002). Treatment Inside the Drug Treatment Court: The Who, What, Where, and How of Treatment Services. Substance Use & Misuse37(12–13), 1665–1688.

Keywords: brokerage model, case management, compliance, delivery of services, in-house model, recovery, treatment quality

special-access-required2002adult

Treatment Retention Predictors of Drug Court Participants in a Rural State

Authors: Allison Mateyoke-Scrivner, J. Matthew Webster, Michele Staton, Carl Leukefeld
Journal: American Journal of Drug & Alcohol Abuse

Factors distinguishing clients who complete drug court treatment from those who do not complete drug court have been documented, but differences between urban and rural drug court participants have not been examined. The present study focuses on examining mental health, drug use, criminal activity, and education/employment as factors that are associated with treatment retention, which is measured by graduation from a rural and urban drug court. Study findings indicate that for the urban drug court, marital status, employment, drug use, and criminal activity predicted graduation. For the rural drug court, however, graduation was only predicted by age and juvenile incarceration. Findings from this study suggest there are different factors associated with drug court retention/graduation between urban and rural drug court settings. It is suggested that drug court administrators and other could use this information to better assess potential participants and to target services.

 

Mateyoke‐Scrivner, A., Webster, J. M., Staton, M., Leukefeld, C., & Mateyoke-Scrivner, A. (2004). Treatment retention predictors of drug court participants in a rural state. American Journal of Drug & Alcohol Abuse30(3), 605–625.

Keywords: drug court, graduation, rural, treatment retention, urban

access-available2004adult

“I’ll Just Do My Time”: The Role of Motivation in the Rejection of the DWI Court Model

Authors: Deborah A. Eckberg, David Squier Jones
Journal: Qualitative Report

In the last decade, driving while intoxicated (DWI) courts based on the therapeutic court model have proliferated. Although the typical DWI court program allows offenders with multiple DWI offenses to avoid jail time and get their drivers’ licenses back sooner, not all offenders who are offered the opportunity to participate in DWI court choose to take advantage of it. Others try but drop out of the program early on. We conducted qualitative interviews with twelve people who were offered the opportunity to participate in an urban DWI court in a Midwestern county between 2007 and 2010, but who either chose not to participate or who tried but did not succeed in the program. The authors point to the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in order to explain the findings and ultimately inform practitioner methods for engaging potential DWI court clients and enhancing success rates.

 

Eckberg, D. A., & Jones, D. S. (2015). “I’ll Just Do My Time”: The Role of Motivation in the Rejection of the DWI Court Model. 19.

Keywords: driving while intoxicated (DWI)/driving under the influence (DUI), court, motivation, interviews

access-available2015dui-dwi

A Multiple Risk Factor Approach for Predicting DWI Recidivism

Authors: Janet C’de Baca, Ph.D., William R. Miller, Ph.D., Sandra Lapham, M.D., M.P.H.
Journal: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment

A sample of DWI (driving while impaired) offenders was studied to compare various approaches for predicting reoffenses over a 4-year period. Logistic regression yielded multivariate predictor equations that were significant statistically, but were not helpful to clinicians in assessing risk for reoffending. As a different approach, five predictor variables that were consistently correlated with reoffense status were examined to determine the cut score at which the repeat offense rate exceeded the base rate. These were combined to yield the number of risk factors (from 0 to 5) for each offender. This method, used for the original and a hold-out sample, yields results as accurate as those derived from a logistic regression model that includes all the risk variables, and allows clinicians to classify offenders into low and high risk categories in a straightforward manner. Nearly half of offenders with four or five risk factors (age, years of education, arrest blood alcohol concentration (BAC), score on the receptive area scale of AUI and raw score on the MacAndrews scale of MMPI-2) were rearrested compared to the base rate (25%). However, this method is not sufficiently precise to accurately predict which individuals will and will not be rearrested. Although generalizability of specific algorithms across populations needs to be examined, this method appears promising as a clinically accessible way to classify, in a given offender population, those who are most likely to repeat the offense.

 

C’de Baca, J., Miller, W. R., & Lapham, S. (2001). A multiple risk factor approach for predicting DWI recidivism. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment21(4), 207–215.

Keywords: alcohol, DUI, DWI, recidivism

special-access-required2001dui-dwi

Are Biomarkers of Chronic Alcohol Misuse Useful in the Assessment of DWI Recidivism Status?

Authors: Sophie Couture, Thomas Brown Douglas, Jacques Tremblay, N. M. K. Ng Ying Kin, Marie Claude Ouimet, Louise Nadeau
Journal: Accident Analysis and Prevention

Methods: First-time offenders (n = 49) and recidivists (n = 95) participated in the study. In addition to self-reported information on sociodemographic and driving characteristics, data from several AUD questionnaires were gathered: Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Composite International Diagnostic Interview, and Timeline Follow-Back. Blood samples were collected to measure AST, ALT, GGT, MCV, CDT, and thiamine.

 

Results: AUD biomarkers, taken individually or in combination, did not indicate that recidivists had more frequent AUD compared to first-time offenders. Also, they failed to significantly differentiate firsttime offenders from recidivists or predict recidivism status. Finally, the superiority of biomarkers over psychosocial AUD questionnaires was not supported in the laboratory setting.

 

Conclusion: The present findings suggest that biomarkers of chronic patterns of heavy drinking may not be adequate to capture the multiple processes that appear to promote recidivism (e.g., binge drinking, other risky behavioural and personality features). Despite their objectivity, caution is warranted in the interpretation of a positive score on these biomarkers in DWI assessment. Longitudinal research is needed to more comprehensively explore the relationship between positive biomarkers in first-time offenders and their risk of becoming recidivists.

 

Couture, Sophie & Brown, Thomas & Tremblay, Jacques & Kin, N. & Ouimet, Marie & Nadeau, Louise. (2010). Are biomarkers of chronic alcohol misuse useful in the assessment of DWI recidivism status? Accident; analysis and prevention. 42. 307-12.

Keywords: alcohol, assessment, biomarkers, driving while impaired, DUI, recidivism

access-available2010dui-dwi

Attitudes Toward Mandatory Ignition Interlocks for all Offenders Convicted of Driving While Intoxicated

Authors: Jonathan Downs, Ruth A. Shults, Bethany A. West
Journal: Journal of Safety Research

Introduction: Ignition interlocks are effective in reducing alcohol-impaired driving recidivism for all offenders, including first-time offenders. Despite their effectiveness, interlock use among persons convicted of driving while intoxicated from alcohol (DWI) remains low. This cross-sectional survey of U.S. adults assessed public support for requiring ignition interlocks for all convicted DWI offenders including first-time offenders. The goal was to update results from a similar 2010 survey in light of new state requirements and increased interlock installations.

 

Methods: Questions were included in the Porter Novelli FallStyles survey, which was fielded from September 28 to October 16, 2015. Participants were the 3,536 individuals who provided an opinion toward requiring ignition interlocks for all offenders. For analyses, opinion toward requiring interlocks for all offenders was dichotomized into ‘agree’ and ‘neutral/disagree.’ To handle missing data, 10 imputed datasets were created and pooled using fully conditional specification (FCS).

 

Results: Fifty-nine percent of adults supported requiring interlocks for all DWI offenders. Multivariate analysis revealed that persons who did not report alcohol impaired driving (AID) were 60% more likely to support requiring interlocks than those who reported AID. Having heard of interlocks also increased support. Support was generally consistent across demographic subgroups.

 

Conclusions: Interlocks for all offenders have majority support nationwide in the current survey, consistent with previous reports. Support is lowest among those who have reported alcohol-impaired driving in the past 30 days. These results suggest that communities with higher levels of alcohol-impaired driving may be more resistant to requiring ignition interlocks for all convicted DWI offenders. Future studies should examine this association further. Practical applications: These results indicate that the majority of adults recognize DWI as a problem and support requiring interlocks for all offenders.

 

Downs, J., Shults, R., & West, B. (2017). Attitudes toward mandatory ignition interlocks for all offenders convicted of driving while intoxicated. Journal of Safety Research63, 99–103.

 

access-available2017dui-dwi

Does the Probability of DWI Arrest Fall Following Participation in DWI and Hybrid Drug Treatment Court Programs?

Authors: Frank A. Sloan, Elizabeth J. Gifford, Lindsey M. Eldred, Sabrina A. McCutchan
Journal: Accident Analysis and Prevention

Using North Carolina administrative data, this study examined recidivism following participation in specialty hybrid drug and driving while intoxicated (DWI) court programs. Three court program participation levels were considered—being referred to, enrolling in, and completing a specialty court program. Measures of DWI recidivism were: arrest and total number of arrests for DWI, and being convicted of DWI during follow-up periods of two and, alternatively, four years. Propensity score matching was used to obtain comparable control groups. Using a four-year follow-up, persons convicted of a DWI who completed a specialty court program were associated with a greater reduction in DWI re-arrests and re-convictions than did matched individuals who were never referred to a specialty court program. DWI courts were more effective in reducing re-arrests than hybrid drug courts were. Although promising from the vantage point of participants, few persons convicted of a DWI were referred to either court type, thus limiting this strategy’s potential effectiveness in reducing DWI.

 

Sloan, F. A., Gifford, E. J., Eldred, L. M., & McCutchan, S. A. (2016). Does the probability of DWI arrest fall following participation in DWI and hybrid drug treatment court programs? Accident Analysis & Prevention97, 197–205.

Keywords: drinking and driving, DWI courts, hybrid drug courts, recidivism

access-available2016dui-dwi

Effectiveness of Ignition Interlock Devices in Reducing Drunk Driving Recidivism

Authors: Jeffrey H. Coben, Gregory L. Larkin
Journal: American Journal of Preventative Medicine

Objective: To determine if ignition interlock devices reduce driving while intoxicated (DWI) recidivism.
Data Collection and Analysis: A total of 31 studies were found. Ten studies met the selection criteria. Three of these studies were eliminated from further analysis because they did not contain original data. A fourth study was eliminated due to methodologic weaknesses, leaving six studies for final review and analysis. Pooled analyses were not done because studies did not follow similar methods over comparable time periods.

 

Main Results: Five of the six studies found interlocks were effective in reducing DWI recidivism while the interlock was installed in the car. In the five studies demonstrating a significant effect, participants in the interlock programs were 15%–69% less likely than controls to be re-arrested for DWI. The only reported randomized, controlled trial demonstrated a 65% reduction in re-arrests for DWI in the interlock group, compared with the control group.

 

Conclusions: Alcohol ignition interlock programs appear to be effective in reducing DWI recidivism during the time period when the interlock is installed in the car. Future studies should attempt to control for exposure (i.e., number of miles driven) and determine if certain sub-groups are most benefited by interlock programs.

 

Coben, J. H., & Larkin, G. L. (1999). Effectiveness of ignition interlock devices in reducing drunk driving recidivism. American Journal of Preventive Medicine16(1), 81–87.

Keywords: accidents (traffic), alcohol drinking, automobile driving, drinking behavior, evaluation studies

special-access-required1999dui-dwi

Drug Courts for DWI Offenders? The Effectiveness of Two Hybrid Drug Courts on DWI Offenders

Authors: Jeffrey A. Bouffard, Katie A. Richardson, Travis Franklin
Journal: Journal of Criminal Justice

The effectiveness of drug courts for illegal drug-involved offenders has been well documented (Belenko, 1998, 2001; Wilson, Mitchell, & MacKenzie, 2006), however, few studies had examined whether they work for repeat “driving while intoxicated” (DWI) or “driving under the influence” (DUI) offenders. The current study examined sixty-six offenders who had completed one of two hybrid DUI/drug courts (compared to eighty-six similar parolees) operating in two small cities in a single midwestern state. Results suggested that among non-DUI offenders, completion of the drug court program reduced recidivism, as might be expected; however, among the subsample of chronic DUI offenders no significant recidivism reduction was noted. These results add to the small, but growing literature suggesting that DUI courts (as they are currently being implemented) may not be an effective way to reduce the occurrence of repeat DUI offenses. Suggestions for DUI court implementation and future research are presented.

Bouffard, J. A., Richardson, K. A., & Franklin, T. (2010). Drug courts for DWI offenders? The effectiveness of two hybrid drug courts on DWI offenders. Journal of Criminal Justice38(1), 25–33.

 

special-access-required2010dui-dwi

General Responsivity Adherence in Juvenile Drug Treatment Court: Examining the Impact on Substance-Use Outcome

Author: Liana R. Taylor
Journal: Journal of Drug Issues

Although the number of juvenile drug treatment courts (JDTC) in operation has increased since the first JDTCs were implemented in the 1990s, research continues to lag regarding the effectiveness of the treatment interventions that are provided. The purpose of the present study was to explore how the risk-need-responsivity models’ general responsivity principle could be used to inform the effectiveness of the interventions provided to 1,176 participants in nine JDTCs in the United States. Responsivity adherence was measured using the number of general responsivity-adherent techniques included in each intervention. The results indicated that an increase in general responsivity adherence was associated with an increase in substance use severity score, which suggests that the effect of the JDTC model on treatment outcomes could vary by the type of interventions provided to participants. In addition, the findings suggest the need to further specify adherence to the general responsivity principle, particularly among substance-involved juvenile offenders.

 

Taylor, L. R. (2016). General Responsivity Adherence in Juvenile Drug Treatment Court: Examining the Impact on Substance-Use Outcome. Journal of Drug Issues46(1), 24–40.

Keywords: general responsivity principle, juvenile drug treatment court, risk-need-responsivity model, substance use severity

special-access-required2016juvenile

Identifying Leading Characteristics Associated with Juvenile Drug Court Admission and Success

Authors: J.C. Barnes, Holly Ventura, J. Mitchell Miller
Journal: Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice

Since first appearing in the late 1980s, drug courts have quickly become one of the leading intervention strategies for offenders exhibiting problems with drug abuse. Popular with policy makers for their innovative approach to breaking the drugs-crime nexus, drug courts are now considered one of the hallmarks of both the adult and juvenile justice systems of corrections. Empirical research has indicated that drug courts are one of the most promising contemporary correctional strategies in reducing recidivism among substance abusing offenders. This study examined a juvenile drug court in an effort to answer some recent research questions that have been proffered by empiricists. Results suggested that clients with a history of mental health problems had greater odds of being admitted to the drug court. No client characteristics, however, were predictive of client success in the drug court. Policy implications are also considered.

 

Barnes, J. C., Miller, H. V., & Miller, J. M. (n.d.). Identifying Leading Characteristics Associated with Juvenile Drug Court Admission and Success. 350-360.

Keywords: drug court admissions, drug court outcomes, juvenile drug court, mental health status

access-available2009juvenile

Juvenile Drug Court Effects on Recidivism and Drug Use: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Authors: Emily E. Tanner-Smith, Mark W. Lipsey, David B. Wilson
Journal: Journal of Experimental Criminology

Objectives To conduct a meta-analysis of the effects of juvenile drug courts on general recidivism, drug recidivism, and drug use, and to explore variability in effects across characteristics of the drug courts and juvenile participants.

 

Methods: We conducted a comprehensive literature search to identify randomized and controlled quasi-experimental studies that reported the effects of juvenile drug courts in the United States. Random-effects meta-analysis models were used to estimate mean odds ratio effect sizes, and meta-regression models were used to explore variability in effects.

 

Results: The literature search yielded 46 eligible evaluation studies. The meta-analysis found that, overall, juvenile drug courts were no more or less effective than traditional court processing, with mean effects sizes that were not statistically significant for general recidivism, drug recidivism, or drug use. There was statistically significant heterogeneity in those effect sizes, but none of the drug court or participant characteristics coded from the study reports were associated with that variability. However, the juvenile drug court evaluations were generally of poor methodological quality, with very few studies employing random assignment and many instances of substantial baseline differences between drug court and comparison groups.

 

Conclusions: Juvenile drug courts were not found to be categorically more or less effective than traditional court processing for reducing recidivism or drug use. The great variability in effects, nonetheless, suggests that there may be effective drug courts, but no distinctive characteristics of the more effective courts could be identified from the descriptive information provided in the generally low quality research studies.
currently available.

 

Tanner-Smith, E. E., Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (2016). Juvenile drug court effects on recidivism and drug use: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Experimental Criminology12(4), 477–513.

Keywords: drug courts, juveniles, meta-analysis, recidivism, substance use

special-access-required2016juvenile

Comparative Analysis of Recidivism Outcomes Following Drug Treatment Court in Vancouver, Canada

Authors: Julian M. Somers, Stefanie N. Rezansoff, Akm Moniruzzaman
Journal: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology

Drug Treatment Courts (DTCs) integrate therapeutic interventions for substance using offenders with the administration of justice. Available evidence indicates that DTCs are effective at reducing recidivism, but it is not yet established whether they are equally effective for all subgroups of offenders. The current study investigates the comparative effectiveness of a Canadian DTC among subgroups defined by ethnicity, gender, prior offending, and the presence of a co-occurring mental disorder. Results indicate greater reductions in recidivism among female and Aboriginal participants, and no differences in recidivism associated with the presence or absence of co-occurring mental disorders or the number of prior convictions. Longer duration of involvement with the DTC program was positively associated with reduced recidivism. The effectiveness of DTCs with distinct subpopulations may be related to their composition and inclusion of expertise relevant to the needs of diverse participants.

 

Somers, J. M., Rezansoff, S. N., & Moniruzzaman, A. (2014). Comparative Analysis of Recidivism Outcomes Following Drug Treatment Court in Vancouver, Canada. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology58(6), 655–671.

Keywords: drug treatment court, recidivism, therapeutic jurisprudence

access-available2014family

Family Drug Treatment Courts As Comprehensive Service Models: Cost Considerations

Authors: Jody Brook, Becci A. Akin, Margaret H. Lloyd Sieger, Michelle Johnson-Motoyama, Yueqi Yan
Journal: Juvenile and Family Court Journal

Literature on family drug treatment courts (FDTCs) suggests that parental participation in these courts is associated with improved substance abuse treatment and child welfare system outcomes. Despite these beneficial outcomes, FDTCs serve only 7-10% of eligible child welfare involved families. As part of a FDTC evaluation, this FDTC site sought to provide stakeholders with information about costs and benefits. Considering the program costs alongside the cost avoidance from reduced time in foster care, this analysis determined that FDTC participation resulted in a net savings
per child of $9,710. The cost component of the evaluation proved valuable,
challenging, and informative.

 

Brook, J., Akin, B. A., Lloyd, M. H., Johnson-Motoyama, M., & Yan, Y. (2016). Family Drug Treatment Courts As Comprehensive Service Models: Cost Considerations. Juvenile and Family Court Journal67(3), 23–43.

Keywords: cost analysis, family drug court, foster care, parenting education, substance abuse

special-access-required2016family

Healing Families: Outcomes from a Family Drug Treatment Court

Authors: Dr. Jacqueline van Wormer, Ming‐Li Hsieh
Journal: Juvenile and Family Court Journal

Family drug treatment courts (FDTC) have been acknowledged as a promising intervention for substance-abusing parents involved in the child welfare system. Over the past decade, the number of FDTC programs has grown substantially, yet questions remain regarding the efficacy of these courts. This study examines the ability of the Snohomish County (WA) FDTC to address the three main goals of the Adoption and Safe Families Act. Utilizing propensity score matching, this study found that participants were more likely to have their children returned, experienced stronger treatment completion rates, and had less use of foster care. Implications for replication and further analysis are discussed.

 

van Wormer, J., & Hsieh, M.-L. (2016). Healing Families: Outcomes from a Family Drug Treatment Court. Juvenile and Family Court Journal67(2), 49–65.

Keywords: child welfare, family drug court, propensity score matching, quasi-experimental model, substance-abusing

special-access-required2016family

How Does Family Drug Treatment Court Participation Affect Child Welfare Outcomes?

Authors: Elizabeth Joanne Gifford, Lindsey Morgan Eldred, Allison Vernerey, Frank Allen Sloan
Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

Parental substance use is a risk factor for child maltreatment. Family drug treatment courts(FDTCs) have emerged in the United States as a policy option to treat the underlying condition and promote family preservation. This study examines the effectiveness of FDTCs in North Carolina on child welfare outcomes. Data come from North Carolina records from child protection services, court system, and birth records. Three types of parental participation in a FDTC are considered: referral, enrolling, and completing an FDTC. The sample includes 566 children who were placed into foster care and whose parents participated in a FDTC program. Findings indicate that children of parents who were referred but did not enroll or who enrolled but did not complete had longer stays in foster care than children of completers. Reunification rates for children of completers were also higher. Outcomes for children in the referred and enrolled groups did not differ in the multivariate analyses. While effective substance use treatment services for parents may help preserve families, future research should examine factors for improving participation and completion rates as well as factors involved in scaling programs so that more families are served.

 

Gifford, E. J., Eldred, L. M., Vernerey, A., & Sloan, F. A. (2014). How does family drug treatment court participation affect child welfare outcomes? Child Abuse & Neglect38(10), 1659–1670.

Keywords: child welfare, family drug treatment court, foster care, parental substance use

access-available2014family

How Effective Are Family Treatment Drug Courts? Outcomes From a Four-Site National Study

Authors: Beth L. Green, Carrie Furrer, Sonia Worcel, Scott W. M. Burrus, Michael W. Finigan
Journal: Child Maltreatment

Family treatment drug courts (FTDCs) are a rapidly expanding program model designed to improve treatment and child welfare outcomes for families involved in child welfare who have substance abuse problems. The present study compares outcomes for 250 FTDC participants to those of similar parents who did not receive FTDC services in four sites. Results show that FTDC parents, compared to comparison parents, entered substance abuse treatment more quickly, stayed in treatment longer, and completed more treatment episodes. Furthermore, children of FTDC parents entered permanent placements more quickly and were more likely to be reunified with their parents, compared to children of non- FTDC participants. Finally, the FTDC program appears to have a “value added” in facilitating positive child welfare outcomes above and beyond the influence of positive treatment experiences.

 

Green, B. L., Furrer, C., Worcel, S., Burrus, S., & Finigan, M. W. (2007). How Effective Are Family Treatment Drug Courts? Outcomes From a Four-Site National Study. Child Maltreatment12(1), 43–59.

Keywords: courts, foster care, parenting, program evaluation, substance abuse

access-available2007family

Measuring Client Satisfaction and Engagement: The Role of a Mentor Parent Program in Family Drug Treatment Court

Authors: Laurie Drabble, Lisa L. Haun, Hilary Kushins, Edward Cohen
Journal: Juvenile and Family Court Journal

Parent engagement is an important intermediate outcome in Family Drug Treatment Court (FDTC) and child welfare services. This study explored the utility and reliability of a client satisfaction and engagement survey designed to measure interim outcomes of a Mentor Parent Program, operating in conjunction with a FDTC. Findings suggest the survey is a useful, parsimonious and reliable tool for measuring key dimensions of parent mentor services including client engagement; client-centered support and empowerment; and help with systems navigation and accessing resources. The survey may be adapted for use in other FDTC or parent mentor contexts.

 

Drabble, L. A., Haun, L. L., Kushins, H., & Cohen, E. (2016). Measuring Client Satisfaction and Engagement: The Role of a Mentor Parent Program in Family Drug Treatment Court. Juvenile and Family Court Journal67(1), 19–32.

Keywords: addiction treatment, child welfare, family drug treatment court, mentor parents, peer mentor, program evaluation, recovery coach

special-access-required2016family

The Baltimore City Drug Treatment Court: 3-Year Self-Report Outcome Study

Authors: Denise C. Gottfredson, Brook W. Kearley, Stacy S. Najaka, Carlos M. Rocha
Journal: Evaluation Review

This study reports results from interviews with 157 research participants who were interviewed 3 years after randomization into treatment and control conditions in the evaluation of the Baltimore City Drug Treatment Court. The interviews asked about crime, substance use, welfare, employment, education, mental and physical health, and family and social relationships. Program participants reported less crime and substance use than did controls. Few differences between groups were observed on other outcomes, although treatment cases were less likely than controls to be on the welfare rolls at the time of the interview. Effects differed substantially according to the originating court.

 

Gottfredson, D. C., Kearley, B. W., Najaka, S. S., & Rocha, C. M. (2005). The Baltimore City Drug Treatment Court: 3-Year Self-Report Outcome Study. Evaluation Review29(1), 42–64.

Keywords: drug treatment courts, randomized experiments

special-access-required2005family

Opioid Exposure Associated with Poppy Consumption Reported to Poison Control Centers and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration

Authors: Eva Greenthal, Peter Lurie, Suzanne Doyon
Journal: Clinical Toxicology

Objective: To assess characteristics of exposures to contaminated poppy and identify trends in exposure and poppy-related deaths.

 

Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of adverse events associated with exposure to poppy products (primarily poppy seeds) from the American Association of Poison Control Centers’ National Poison Data System (NPDS), 2000–2018, supplemented with analysis of overdoses and deaths related to poppy from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition’s Adverse Event Reporting System (CAERS) (2004–2018), and the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) (1968–2018).

 

Results: There were 591 NPDS exposure cases involving poppy between 2000 and 2018 including 392 in persons aged 13+. Rates of intentional exposures in NPDS increased among the age 13+ group over the study period. Most intentional exposures occurred in males in their teens and twenties. NPDS included 18 overdoses and three deaths likely attributable to poppy, most involving poppy seed tea. CAERS and FAERS included five additional deaths likely attributable to opioids in poppy.

 

Conclusions: Including previously reported cases, there are now at least 19 U.S. deaths associated with poppy seeds in the literature. We recommend that practitioners working in opioid treatment and recovery be alert to use of poppy to treat pain and symptoms of withdrawal.

 

Greenthal, E., Lurie, P., & Doyon, S. (2021). Opioid exposure associated with poppy consumption reported to poison control centers and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Clinical Toxicology0(0), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2020.1866766

Keywords: National Poison Data System, opioid overdose, poison control center, poppy seed, poppy tea

access-available2021opioid

Reentry Court Judges: the Key to the Court

Authors: Christopher Salvatore, Venezia Michalsen, Caitlin Taylor
Journal: Journal of Offender Rehabilitation

Over the last few decades, treatment-oriented court judges have moved away from being neutral arbitrators in an adversarial court process to treatment facilitators. In the problem-solving court model, judges are part of a more therapeutic treatment process with program participants and a courtroom work group. The shift from the use of the traditional criminal justice process toward the use of more treatment-oriented models for some populations highlights the need to systematically document key elements of treatment court models. In particular, it is important to clearly document the role of Reentry Court Judges because they are a key component of the Reentry Court model. The current study used interviews with members of the courtroom work group, as well as a focus group interview of former participants in the program, to help identify the role of the judge and activities the judge engages. Findings revealed that the judges played a supportive, informal role, balanced with a more formal, authoritarian role, and the judges engaged participants in pre-court meetings, as well as courtroom sessions. Further, the judges facilitated interactions with program participants outside the courtroom, demonstrating that the judge is a core component of success for participants in Reentry Court.

 

Salvatore, C., Michalsen, V., & Taylor, C. (2020). Reentry court judges: The key to the court. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation; London59(4), 198–222.

Keywords: judges, probationers, reentry, reintegration, treatment

special-access-required2020reentry

Reentry Court Research: Overview of Findings from the National Institute of Justice’s Evaluation of Second Chance Act Adult Reentry Courts

Authors: Shannon M. Carey, Michael Rempel, Christine H. Lindquist, Amanda Cissner, Lama Hassoun Ayoub, Dana Kralstein, Anna M. Malsch

Study Goals: This study of eight SCA reentry courts across the U.S. had four goals: 1. Describe the SCA reentry courts through a comprehensive process evaluation. 2. Determine the effectiveness of the SCA reentry courts at reducing recidivism and improving individual outcomes through a rigorous impact evaluation. 3. Conduct a cost-benefit analysis. 4. Contribute to the development of a “true“ reentry court model.

 

Methods: The study used a multi-method approach including 1. a process evaluation in all eight sites involving yearly site visits from 2012 to 2014 with key stakeholder interviews, observations, and participant focus groups; 2. a prospective impact evaluation (in four sites) including interviews at release from jail or prison and at 12 months after release (as well as oral swab drug tests) with reentry court participants and a matched comparison group; 3. a recidivism impact evaluation (in seven sites) with a matched comparison group tracking recidivism for 2 years post reentry court entry and 4. a cost-benefit evaluation (in seven sites) involving a transactional and institutional cost analysis (TICA) approach. Final administrative data were collected through the end of 2016.

 

Results: Results were mixed across sites. One site consistently demonstrated positive outcomes across the interview, recidivism, and cost analyses with the reentry court successfully delivering more substance abuse treatment and other services than what was received by the comparison group. In addition, reentry court participants out-performed the comparison group in reduced recidivism (re-arrests and re-conviction) and reincarceration (revocation and time in jail or prison). Two sites had neutral, trending toward positive, results with reduced participant re-arrests but with other outcomes (such as convictions and re-incarceration) not significantly different between the participants and the comparison group. Two other sites had mixed results (e.g., participants had significantly fewer re-arrests but significantly increased re-incarceration) and two had negative results (e.g., participants had significantly more re-arrests and incarceration while other outcomes were no different between groups). Cost findings were similarly mixed with two sites experiencing cost savings due mainly to lower recidivism costs and fewer victimization costs for reentry court participants ($2,512 and $6,710 saved per participant) and the remainder experiencing loss (ranging from just over -$1,000 to almost – $17,000 loss per participant). The research protocol and process evaluation findings are documented in three annual project reports; research caveats include a lack of detailed treatment service data. Also, reentry court program investment costs are described, but the comparison of cost estimates is limited to outcomes and does not include net benefits based on investment in non-reentry court case processing in the comparison group.

 

Conclusions: Key processes that set the one site with positive outcomes apart from the other sites was the high level of consistency and intensity of substance abuse treatment, wraparound services for multiple criminogenic needs, high intensity supervision, as well as an increased use of praise from the judge along with other incentives and sanctions. In addition, the eligibility criteria for this site required that participants have a substance use disorder with risk levels ranging from moderate to high (based on their local risk assessment with a three point scale that ranged from low to high). In contrast, other site eligibility criteria did not require a substance use disorder and participant risk levels were mostly high to very high (depending on the assessment tool used and their specific scoring and risk category criteria). It is possible that the sites with less positive results did not have the appropriate level and type of services consistently available to best serve the varying risk levels of their participants.

 

Carey, S. M., Rempel, M., Lindquist, C., Cissner, A., Ayoub, L. H., Kralstein, D., & Malsch, A. (2017). Reentry Court Research: Overview of Findings from the National Institute of Justice’s Evaluation of Second Chance Act Adult Reentry Courts (Overview/Summary No. 251496; pp. 1–33). Office of Justice Pro
access-available2017reentry

Reentry Courts: An Emerging Use of Judicial Resources in the Struggle to Reduce the Recidivism of Released Offenders

Author: Daniel M. Fetsco
Journal: Wyoming Law Review

In the current system of criminal justice in the United States, most courts have little involvement with offenders once they are sentenced to prison. Certainly, prison inmates can and do appeal their convictions, but the appeals are heard by separate appellate courts. After release from prison on parole, or under some other form of supervised release, the court’s role in the affairs of the offender diminishes further. Parole officers are typically the agents of the criminal justice system who carry out the terms of the offender’s sentence once released, providing supervision and ideally assisting the offender’s transition back into the community. Parole officers accomplish this through working with offenders to help them avoid using drugs and alcohol, maintain curfews and daily schedules, abide by the law, and secure and maintain lawful employment. If an offender fails to follow the conditions of his or her supervision, it is the parole agent and parole board or other releasing authority who determines what sanctions shall be imposed in response to the violations.

 

Fetsco, D. M. (2013). Reentry Courts: An Emerging Use of Judicial Resources in the Struggle to Reduce the Recidivism of Released Offenders. Wyoming Law Review13(2), 591–614.

Keywords: judges, probationers, reentry, reintegration, treatment

access-available2013reentry

Reentry Courts: Providing a Second Chance for Incarcerated Mothers and Their Children

Author: Erin McGrath
Journal: Family Court Review

Each year many incarcerated mothers are released from prison and must endure the difficult process of prisoner reentry. The rate of recidivism remains significantly high among this transitioning population, which negatively affects many children. The traditional parole system has not adequately addressed the complexities of a mother-prisoner’s reentry and reunification with her child. This Note proposes that states should expand or adopt the use of problem solving parole courts, or “Reentry Courts” to support a mother and her child through the transition from prison to home. Reentry Courts provide a multi-agency coordinated solution, which utilizes judicial authority for women seeking to transform their lives and reunify with their children upon their release from prison.

 

McGrath, E. (2012). Reentry Courts: Providing a Second Chance for Incarcerated Mothers and Their Children. Family Court Review50(1), 113–127.

Keywords: child, incarcerated mother, prisoner reentry, problem solving court, reentry, reentry court, reunification

special-access-required2012reentry

The Missing Pieces in Federal Reentry Courts: A Model for Success Note

Author: Kristin Brown Parker
Journal: Drexel Law Review

With incarceration rates at an all-time high and over-criminalization rampant, there is a growing need for programs aimed at rehabilitating ex-offenders following release from prison. These programs are critical to combatting the collateral consequences associated with imprisonment. Perhaps the most significant of those collateral consequences ex-offenders face are housing and employment. More specifically, due to ex-offenders’ criminal histories, landlords may refuse to rent spaces to ex-offenders, and employers may discriminate against them. Although there has been significant progress in the area of employment by way of “Ban the Box” legislation, which prohibits employers from requiring applicants to disclose criminal history, there is still much progress to be made. There is a growing trend toward combating collateral consequences and assisting ex-offenders in successfully rehabilitating following release from prison through a collaboration between courts and correctional institutions. Specifically, local, state, and federal reentry courts are cropping up throughout the country with the goal of assisting ex-offenders in securing housing and employment, and addressing additional issues ex-offenders face following reentry into the community. While all of these programs are a step in the right direction toward providing necessary assistance to ex-offenders, some are more effective than others, and Philadelphia’s Federal Reentry Court has proven to be especially successful.

 

Parker, K. B. (2015). The Missing Pieces in Federal Reentry Courts: A Model for Success Note. Drexel Law Review8(2), 397–424.

 

access-available2016reentry

A Hero’s Welcome? Exploring the Prevalence and Problems of Military Veterans in the Arrestee Population

Authors: Michael D. White, Philip Mulvey, Andrew M. Fox, David Choate
Journal: Justice Quarterly

The potential for veterans to end up in the criminal justice system as a result of physical and psychological problems that may be combat‐related has generated much interest, illustrated most recently by the development of specialized veterans’ courts. However, little is known about how often veterans are arrested and incarcerated, the nature of their problems, or the extent to which their military service has contributed to their criminality. Using interview data from 2,102 arrestees booked in Maricopa County (AZ) during 2009, this paper examines the problems and prior experiences of arrested military veterans and compares veteran and non‐veteran arrestees along a range of measures. Results indicate that veterans comprise 6.3% of the arrestee population, and that more than 50% of veterans report suffering from at least one combat‐related problem including physical injury, post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other mental health problems, and substance abuse. Multivariate analysis indicates that veteran arrestees differ from non‐veterans on a number of key measures, most notably more frequent arrests for violent offenses and greater use of crack cocaine and opiates. The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for the potential link between military service and criminality as well as for criminal justice policy and practice.

 

White, M. D., Mulvey, P., Fox, A. M., & Choate, D. (2012). A Hero’s Welcome? Exploring the Prevalence and Problems of Military Veterans in the Arrestee Population. Justice Quarterly29(2), 258–286.

Keywords: combat-related problems and crime, military and crime, veterans and crime

access-available2011veterans

An Analysis of Successful Outcomes and Associated Contributing Factors in Veterans’ Court

Authors: R. Scott Johnson, Andrea Stolar, Emily Wu, Loretta A. Coonan
Journal: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic

This study aims to examine the extent to which a veteran’s propensity for arrest following separation from veterans’ court is associated with that veteran’s length of stay within the program, type of discharge, or number of judicial sanctions issued. This is a retrospective chart review that focuses on the first 100 participants in the Harris County Veterans’ Court Program. After controlling for a number of demographic factors, both arrests during enrollment in the veterans’ court program (p = .031) and Factor Score 1 (unsuccessful discharge, fewer months in the veterans’ court program, and more months of follow up) (p = .042) were predictive of arrest following separation from the veterans’ court program. In addition, a prior diagnosis of opiate misuse was also predictive of arrest following separation (p < .001). Given these findings, veterans’ court judges and program administrators might examine ways of continuing enrollment for veterans at highest risk for recidivism.

 

Johnson, R. S., Stolar, A. G., Wu, E., Coonan, L. A., & Graham, D. P. (2015). An analysis of successful outcomes and associated contributing factors in veterans’ court. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic79(2), 166–173.

 

access-available2015veterans

Exploring Therapeutic and Militaristic Contexts in a Veteran Treatment Court

Authors: Tyler J. Vaughan, Lisa Bell Holleran, and Rachel Brooks
Journal: Criminal Justice Policy Review

Recently, the number of veteran treatment courts (VTCs) has greatly expanded. These courts, based on drug treatment court processes, attempt to handle the underlying causes of criminal conduct as well as the instant offense. There is, however, no research that addresses how the military manifests in VTC. We suggest that participants import military culture into VTC processes and that the military will have an influence on VTC proceedings. The purpose of this study is to examine how military and specialty court approaches appear in the VTC. Using results from field research in a VTC in Texas, we find the military has profound influences in VTC proceedings. Military references serve the purpose of structuring the court docket, helping develop rapport between court staff and participants, as well as creating a familiar context for participants. We highlight the value and potential problems of relying on military culture. Policy implications and directions for future research are discussed.

 

Vaughan, T. J., Bell Holleran, L., & Brooks, R. (2019). Exploring Therapeutic and Militaristic Contexts in a Veteran Treatment Court. Criminal Justice Policy Review30(1), 79–101. https://doi.org/10.1177/0887403416640585

Keywords: fieldwork, military culture, qualitative research, veteran treatment courts

access-available2019veterans

Healing the Wounds: An Examination of Veterans Treatment Courts in the Context of Restorative Justice

Authors: Julie Marie Baldwin, Joseph Rukus
Journal: Criminal Justice Policy Review

Controversy exists regarding whether specialized courts, specifically drug courts, adhere to the restorative justice model. Veterans treatment courts (VTCs) are the newest programmatic innovation in the specialized court arena and have not been widely studied to date. This study utilizes data from the first in-depth case study of a VTC and explores whether it embodies the restorative justice ideal. Using both quantitative and qualitative data, we find that the VTC does not fully embody the restorative justice agenda, but it adheres closer to the ideal than drug courts.

 

Baldwin, J. M., & Rukus, J. (2015). Healing the Wounds: An Examination of Veterans Treatment Courts in the Context of Restorative Justice. Criminal Justice Policy Review26(2), 183–207.

Keywords: veterans court, veterans treatment court, restorative justice, restorative practice,
specialized courts, criminal justice policy

access-available2015veterans

Varieties of Veterans’ Courts: A Statewide Assessment of Veterans’ Treatment Court Components

Authors: Anne S. Douds, Eileen M. Ahlin, Daniel Howard, Sarah Stigerwalt
Journal: Criminal Justice Policy Review

Since the mid-2000s, there has been an upsurge in the development of Veterans’ Treatment Courts (VTCs) to support justice-involved veterans’ treatment needs while also providing criminal justice supervision. Despite their prolific development in recent years, there is a dearth of scholarly research on how VTCs are structured and whether there are common components across courts. There is a need to understand how VTCs are structured and operationally implemented to inform additional program planning and evaluation. To bridge this gap in the literature, this study provides a statewide assessment of the 17 VTCs operating in Pennsylvania, identifies six common components, and highlights areas in which their implementation diverges between courts to meet the specific needs of veterans across Pennsylvania. The results of this study provide a baseline framework to aid future researchers in conducting process and outcome evaluations by documenting and examining the common components of VTCs.

 

Douds, A. S., Ahlin, E. M., Howard, D., & Stigerwalt, S. (2017). Varieties of Veterans’ Courts: A Statewide Assessment of Veterans’ Treatment Court Components. Criminal Justice Policy Review28(8), 740–769.

Keywords: community corrections, courts, therapeutic jurisprudence

special-access-required2017veterans

Evidence-based Treatment and Supervision Practices for Co-occurring Mental and Substance Use Disorders in the Criminal Justice System

Authors: Roger H. Peters, M. Scott Young, Elizabeth C. Rojas, Claire M. Gorey
Journal: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse

 

Background: Over seven million persons in the United States are supervised by the criminal justice system, including many who have co-occurring mental and substance use disorders (CODs). This population is at high risk for recidivism and presents numerous challenges to those working in the justice system.

 

Objectives: To provide a contemporary review of the existing research and examine key issues and evidence-based treatment and supervision practices related to CODs in the justice system.

 

Methods: We reviewed COD research involving offenders that has been conducted over the past 20 years and provide an analysis of key findings.

 

Results: Several empirically supported frameworks are available to guide services for offenders who have CODs, including Integrated Dual Disorders Treatment (IDDT), the Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) model, and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT). Evidence-based services include integrated assessment that addresses both sets of disorders and the risk for criminal recidivism. Although several evidence-based COD interventions have been implemented at different points in the justice system, there remains a significant gap in services for offenders who have CODs. Existing program models include Crisis Intervention Teams (CIT), day reporting centers, specialized community supervision teams, pre- and post-booking diversion programs, and treatment-based courts (e.g., drug courts, mental health courts, COD dockets). Jail-based COD treatment programs provide stabilization of acute symptoms, medication consultation, and triage to community services, while longer-term prison COD programs feature Modified Therapeutic Communities (MTCs).

 

Conclusion: Despite the availability of multiple evidence-based interventions that have been implemented across diverse justice system settings, these services are not sufficiently used to address the scope of treatment and supervision needs among offenders with CODs.

 

Peters, R. H., Young, M. S., Rojas, E. C., & Gorey, C. M. (2017). Evidence-based treatment and supervision practices for co-occurring mental and substance use disorders in the criminal justice system. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse43(4), 475–488.

Keywords: co-occurring disorders, criminal justice system, mental disorders, offenders, substance abuse

special-access-required2017cooccurring

Does Reentry Court Completion Affect Recidivism Three Years after Exit? Results from a Retrospective Cohort Study

Authors: Spencer Lawson, Eric Grommon, Bradley Ray
Journal: Corrections

Reentry courts are a strategy to assist individuals subjected to post-release supervision in the reintegration process, but there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of these practices. The current study presents the results of a retrospective cohort study for a sample of 340 participants who exited a reentry court. Specifically, survival analyses were employed to evaluate whether participants’ reentry court completion status affects their likelihood of and timing to recidivism events three years after exiting the program. The results revealed that successful program completion continues to shape recidivism outcomes up to three years after reentry court exit.

 

Lawson, S. G., Grommon, E., & Ray, B. (2019). Does Reentry Court Completion Affect Recidivism Three Years after Exit? Results from a Retrospective Cohort Study. Corrections0(0), 1–17.

Keywords: community supervision, problem-solving courts, program evaluation, recidivism, reentry court

special-access-required2019reentry

Reentry Courts: An Examination of the “Provocative Proposal” in Practice

Author: Rodney Villazor
Journal: Federal Sentencing Reporter

Villazor, R. (2016). Reentry Courts: An Examination of the “Provocative Proposal” in Practice. Federal Sentencing Reporter28(4), 253–258.

Keywords: community supervision, problem-solving courts, program evaluation, recidivism, reentry court

special-access-required2016reentry

Building the Evidence Base for Family Drug Treatment Courts: Results From Recent Outcome Studies

Authors: Beth L. Green, Carrie Jeanne Furrer, Sonia D. Worsel, Scott W. M. Burrus, Michael W. Finigan
Journal: Drug Court Review

Family Drug Treatment Courts (FDTCs) are an increasingly prevalent program designed to serve the multiple and complex needs of families involved in the child welfare system who have substance abuse problems. It is estimated that over 301 FDTCs are currently operational in the United States. Few rigorous studies of FDTCs have examined the effectiveness of these programs. This paper reviews current FDTC research and summarizes the results from four outcome studies of FDTCs. Results suggest that FDTCs can be effective programs to improve treatment outcomes, increase the likelihood of family reunification, and reduce the time children spend in foster care. However, further research is needed to explore how variations in program models, target populations, and the quality of treatment services influence effectiveness.

 

Green, B., Furrer, C., Worsel, S., Burrus, S., & Finigan, M. (2009). Building the Evidence Base for Family Drug Treatment Courts: Results From Recent Outcome Studies. Drug Court Review6(2), 53–82.

 

access-available2009family

Effects of a Multidisciplinary Family Treatment Drug Court on Child and Family Outcomes: Results of a Quasi-Experimental Study

Authors: Eric J. Bruns, Michael D. Pullmann, Ericka S. Weathers, Mark L. Wirschem, Jill K. Murphy
Journal: Child Maltreatment

Family treatment drug courts (FTDCs) are an increasingly common approach for serving families involved in child welfare due to parental substance abuse; however, the evidence base for FTDCs remains emergent. This quasi-experimental study replicates previous research on FTDCs by comparing parental substance abuse treatment and child welfare outcomes for 76 FTDC participants to outcomes for 76 parents in the same system who did not participate in the FTDC, using propensity score matching. Data were obtained from the Superior court, FTDC, child welfare, and public substance use treatment service administrative databases. The follow-up window for participants ranged from 1 to 3 years. Results showed FTDC parents had significantly more review and motion hearings, were significantly more likely to enter treatment, entered treatment faster, received more treatment, and were more likely to successfully complete treatment. FTDC children spent significantly less time placed out of home, ended child welfare system involvement sooner, were more likely to be permanently placed and discharged from child welfare, and were more likely to return to parental care. Results demonstrate that FTDCs promote positive treatment and child welfare outcomes without deepening participants’ involvement in justice systems.

 

Bruns, E. J., Pullmann, M. D., Weathers, E. S., Wirschem, M. L., & Murphy, J. K. (2012). Effects of a Multidisciplinary Family Treatment Drug Court on Child and Family Outcomes: Results of a Quasi-Experimental Study. Child Maltreatment17(3), 218–230.

Keywords: child welfare, children in child welfare, parents/adults, substance abuse, treatment

special-access-required2012family

Family Drug Court, Targeted Parent Training and Family Reunification: Did this Enhanced Service Strategy Make A Difference?

Authors: Jody Brook, Becci A. Akin, Margaret H. Lloyd, Yueqi Yan
Journal: Juvenile and Family Court Journal

This article reports findings from an evaluation of reunification outcomes for children and families who participated in a family drug court (FDC) that incorporated the use of two innovative evidence-based parenting programs. In addition to comprehensive FDC services, families participated in the Strengthening Families Program and Celebrating Families! programs in a sequential format. Data analyses were conducted on a sample of 214 children whose child welfare cases were adjudicated through the FDC and 418 matched comparison cases. Entry-cohort survival analysis results indicated that families receiving FDC services were more than twice as likely to reunify in a 45 month observation window.

 

Brook, J., Akin, B. A., Lloyd, M. H., & Yan, Y. (2015). Family Drug Court, Targeted Parent Training and Family Reunification: Did this Enhanced Service Strategy Make A Difference? Juvenile and Family Court Journal66(2), 35–52.

 

special-access-required2015family

Sobriety Treatment and Recovery Teams for Families with Co-occurring Substance Use and Child Maltreatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Martin T. Hall, Aimee B. Kelmela, Ruth A. Huebner, Matthew T. Walton, Anita P. Barbee
Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

Background: Co-occurring parental substance use and child maltreatment has increased in recent years and is associated with poor child welfare outcomes. The Sobriety Treatment and Recovery Teams (START) program was developed to meet the needs of these families.

 

Objective: A randomized controlled trial was implemented to compare START to usual child welfare services on three outcomes: out-of-home care (OOHC) placements; reunification; and subsequent child maltreatment.

 

Participants and setting: Families reported to child welfare services in Jefferson County, Kentucky, were eligible if they had a current finding of child maltreatment or services needed, substance use as a primary risk factor, a child under six years of age, and no other open child welfare cases.

 

Methods: Biased coin randomization was used for a control: treatment randomization ratio of 1:2. Analyses were conducted using intent-to-treat (ITT), though a subsample of families receiving services was also analyzed. Differences were assessed using t-tests, chi-square, and risk ratios.

 

Results: A total of 348 families including 526 children were randomized to START (n = 346) and usual services (n = 180). There were no significant differences between groups on the three outcomes in the ITT sample or the subsample that received services, though the START OOHC rate was 7 percentage points lower (relative difference: 21.6 %) and the reunification rate was 13 percentage points higher (relative difference: 27.6 %) in the subsample.

 

Conclusions: Although differences between groups were not significantly different, the relative differences were meaningful and this is the third study showing lower rates of OOHC among START relative to usual services. Additionally, the START reunification rate is higher than the overall U.S. average in spite of notable risk factors.

 

Hall, M. T., Kelmel, A. B., Huebner, R. A., Walton, M. T., & Barbee, A. P. (2021). Sobriety Treatment and Recovery Teams for families with co-occurring substance use and child maltreatment: A randomized controlled trial. Child Abuse & Neglect114, 104963.

Keywords: child maltreatment, out-of-home care, randomized controlled trial, reunification, substance use

special-access-required2021family

Veteran Treatment Court Clients’ Perceptions of Procedural Justice and Recidivism

Authors: Cassandra A. Atkin-Plunk, Gaylene S. Armstrong, Nicky Dalbir
Journal: Criminal Justice Policy Review

Studies surrounding the effectiveness of veterans’ treatment courts (VTCs) are now emerging. Absent from this scholarship is an examination of the presence of procedural justice within VTCs and the influence of procedural justice on future criminal behavior of VTC clients. To begin this dialogue, this study surveys 41 clients enrolled in two VTCs in a Southern state. We explore client perceptions of procedurally just treatment by their judge and assigned supervision officer. Using an average follow-up time of 20 months, this study also examines the effects of perceptions of procedural justice on recidivism of court clients. Results find VTC clients perceive their judge and supervision officer treat them in a procedurally just manner. Interestingly, perceptions of procedural justice during interactions did not result in reduced recidivism among the current sample. Policy and program implications along with recommendations for future research are provided.

 

Atkin-Plunk, C. A., Armstrong, G. S., & Dalbir, N. (2020). Veteran Treatment Court Clients’ Perceptions of Procedural Justice and Recidivism. Criminal Justice Policy Review. 2021;32(5):501-522.

Keywords: problem-solving courts, procedural justice, recidivism, veterans’ treatment courts

special-access-required2020veterans

Veteran Treatment Courts: A Promising Solution

Authors: Ashok Paparao Yerramsetti, Daniel David Simons, Loretta A. Coonan, Michael E. DeBakey, Andrea Stolar
Journal: Behavioral Sciences & the Law

The high prevalence of substance use, traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder, and other mental illness in the veteran population presents unique public health and social justice challenges. Veteran involvement in the justice system has been identified as a national concern. Criminal justice involvement compounds pre-existing socioeconomic stressors and further strains support systems. The point of contact with the criminal justice system, however, presents an opportunity to establish mental health treatment. This is consistent with the concept of the sequential intercept model that seeks to divert offenders with mental illness from the criminal justice system into treatment. In recent years, many jurisdictions have established veterans treatment courts (VTCs), a type of problem-solving court serving this diversion function for military veterans. This article presents an overview of the problem, the ethical basis for their development, a brief history of the courts, and their potential for success. The Harris County Veterans Court is presented as an example.

 

Yerramsetti, A. P., Simons, D. D., Coonan, L., & Stolar, A. (2017). Veteran treatment courts: A promising solution. Behavioral Sciences & the Law35(5–6), 512–522.

 

special-access-required2017veterans

Veterans Treatment Court: A Proactive Approach

Author: Judge Robert T. Russell
Journal: New England Journal on Criminal and Civil Confinement

As the veteran population in the United States continues to rise, so too does the need for greater understanding of the impact of military service. As of October 2008, the estimated United States veteran population was 23,442,000.1 “Since October 2001, approximately 1.64 million U.S. troops have been deployed for Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom in Afghanistan and Iraq.” Military service can impact the lives of veterans and their families in countless ways. Many returning veterans and their families cope with serious issues such as: alcohol and substance abuse, mental illness, homelessness, unemployment, and strained relationships. Oftentimes, these serious issues go unaddressed, and many of the veterans end up in our criminal justice system. With the increase of veterans with serious needs in our criminal justice system, comes the need for the system to develop innovative ways of working to address these issues and needs. One court in Buffalo, New York, has developed a plan for meeting the serious needs of veterans within the criminal justice system and created the nation’s first specialized Veterans Treatment Court.

 

Russell, R. T. (2009). Veterans Treatment Court: A Proactive Approach. New England Journal on Criminal and Civil Confinement35(2), 357–372.

 

access-available2009veterans

Juvenile Drug Courts and Recidivism: Results from a Multisite Outcome Study

Authors: Christopher J. Sullivan, Lesli Blair, Edward J. Latessa, Carrie Sullivan
Journal: Justice Quarterly

This study reports findings from a study of nine juvenile drug courts (JDCs) from across the US. A quasi-experimental design, with one-to-one matching on possible confounders and sociodemographics, was used for the outcome assessment (n = 1372). Baseline and outcome data were drawn from justice system records. Although there is variation across sites and, to some extent, outcomes, these JDCs were generally ineffective in reducing recidivism. Similar findings have emerged in other recent studies of JDCs. Given the results of this study and others, it is essential that juvenile courts work to improve the effectiveness of JDCs by increasing adherence to known principles of effective intervention.

 

Sullivan, C. J., Blair, L., Latessa, E., & Sullivan, C. C. (2016). “Juvenile Drug Courts and Recidivism: Results from a Multisite Outcome Study.” Justice Quarterly33(2), 291–318.

Keywords: drug courts, evidence-based practice, juvenile justice

access-available2016juvenile

Juvenile Drug Court: Enhancing Outcomes by Integrating Evidence-Based Treatments

Authors: Christopher J. Sullivan, Lesli Blair, Edward J. Latessa, Carrie Sullivan
Journal: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology

Evaluated the effectiveness of juvenile drug court for 161 juvenile offenders meeting diagnostic criteria for substance abuse or dependence and determined whether the integration of evidence-based practices enhanced the outcomes of juvenile drug court. Over a 1-year period, a four-condition randomized design evaluated outcomes for family court with usual community services, drug court with usual community services, drug court with multisystemic therapy, and drug court with multisystemic therapy enhanced with contingency management for adolescent substance use, criminal behavior, symptomatology, and days in out-of-home placement. In general, findings supported the view that drug court was more effective than family court services in decreasing rates of adolescent substance use and criminal behavior. Possibly due to the greatly increased surveillance of youths in drug court, however, these relative reductions in antisocial behavior did not translate to corresponding decreases in rearrest or incarceration. In addition, findings supported the view that the use of evidence-based treatments within the drug court context improved youth substance-related outcomes. Clinical and policy implications of these findings are discussed.

 

Henggeler, S. W., Halliday-Boykins, C. A., Cunningham, P. B., Randall, J., Shapiro, S. B., & Chapman, J. E. (n.d.). Juvenile Drug Court: Enhancing Outcomes by Integrating Evidence-Based Treatments. 13.

Keywords: contingency management, delinquency, juvenile drug court, multisystemic therapy, substance abuse

special-access-required2006juvenile

Meeting Treatment Needs: Overall Effectiveness and Critical Components of Juvenile Drug Court/Reclaiming Futures Programs

Authors: Josephine D. Korchmaros, Sally J. Stevens, Alison R. Greene, Monica Davis, Rachel Chalot
Journal: Journal of Juvenile Justice

There is a current trend to incorporate evidence-based practices into juvenile drug courts in an effort to enhance substance abuse treatment capacity. Consequently many jurisdictions that have been implementing the Juvenile Drug Court: Strategies in Practice (National Drug Court Institute & National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges, 2003), have incorporated Reclaiming Futures (Nissen, Butts, Merrigan, & Kraft, 2006) into their juvenile drug courts. The expectation is that the integrated Juvenile Drug Court: Strategies in Practice and Reclaiming Futures (JDC/RF) program would lead to increased engagement of youth in juvenile drug court resulting in improved rates of program clients receiving substance abuse treatment. Results of the National Cross-Site Evaluation of JDC/RF indicate that the overall probability of a JDC/RF program client receiving treatment is relatively high, but varies by program. Specifically, JDC/RF programs lacking systems integration were less effective at serving substance abuse treatment needs, regardless of the characteristics of their
clients. This finding suggests that all communities should focus on system integration when delivering services to adolescents with substance abuse problems in the justice system. In addition, JDC/RF programs with greater access to targeted treatment were more effective at serving substance abuse treatment needs. Even though this effect was accounted for by client characteristics, results suggest that targeted treatment should remain a particular focus of juvenile drug courts.

 

Meeting Treatment Needs: Overall Effectiveness and Critical Components of Juvenile Drug Court/Reclaiming Futures Programs. (n.d.). Journal of Juvenile Justice, 21.

Keywords: juvenile drug court, Reclaiming Futures, Strategies in Practice, treatment programs

special-access-required2015juvenile

New Approaches for Working with Children and Families Involved in Family Treatment Drug Courts: Findings from the Children Affected by Methamphetamine Program

Authors: Michael S. Rodi, Colleen M. Killian, Philip Breitenbucher, Nancy K. Young, Sharon Amatetti, Russ Bermejo, Erin Hall
Journal: Child Welfare

This is a descriptive study of the Children Affected by Methamphetamine (CAM) grant program, a federally funded effort to improve outcomes through the addition of targeted interventions for 1,940 families, including 2,596 adults and 4,245 children involved in 12 diverse Family Treatment Drug Courts (FTDCs) located across six U.S. states. The majority were children of parents with a primary methamphetamine use disorder. Findings reflect grantees’ reporting on 18 performance indicators of child safety and permanency, adult recovery, and family well-being. Additional information gleaned from grantees’ biannual reports provides insights about program implementation. Results, drawn from this large and complex dataset, indicate that comprehensively addressing families’ needs is associated with better outcomes than those experienced by similarly situated families in grantees’ communities and the nation overall. In addition to describing common program components and outcomes, this article presents important lessons learned about implementing evidence-based children’s services in the FTDC context, as well as future directions for research and evaluation in this arena.

 

Rodi, M. S., Killian, C. M., Breitenbucher, P., Young, N. K., Amatetti, S., Bermejo, R., & Hall, E. (2015). New Approaches for Working with Children and Families Involved in Family Treatment Drug Courts: Child Welfare94(4), 205–232.

 

special-access-required2015juvenile

Predictors of Program Failure in a Juvenile Drug Court Program

Authors: Brian Konecky, Tony Cellucci, Kirk Mochrie
Journal: Addictive Behaviors

Adolescent substance use is a major social problem associated with academic underachievement, emotional/psychiatric symptoms, family conflict, and legal difficulties (Evans et al., 2005; Kamininer & Winters, 2011). Adolescents in the juvenile justice system have a high prevalence of substance use disorders (SUD) with multiple SUDs (e.g., alcohol and marijuana) being normative (McClelland, Elkington, Teplin, & Abram, 2004).

 

There are several major concerns regarding adolescent treatment. First, adolescent substance abuse treatments have high dropout rates. For example, of 160 admissions to residential treatment, only 30% of male adolescents completed treatment, making program failure a substantial issue in this population (Neumann et al., 2010).

 

Second, adolescents with co-occurring disorders (e.g., depression) have more difficulty completing treatment than those with just SUD (White et al., 2004).

 

Third, some studies have found that psychopathic characteristics at intake have correlated with attrition, poor participation, and less clinical improvement (e.g., O’Neill, Lidz, & Heilbrun, 2003). Among adolescents enrolled in a short-term court program for first time offenders, those with higher levels of delinquency tended to have subsequent reports of heavy drinking and negative consequences (Hunter, Miles, Pedersen, Ewing, & D’Amico, 2014).

 

Drug courts were designed to address low treatment completion rates, frequent relapse, and recidivism, associated with substance abuse within the correctional system. As of December 2011, there were an estimated 476 juvenile courts operating (Huddleston & Marlowe, 2011). Research suggests that juvenile drug courts can be more effective than other treatments for adolescents (Henggeler, 2007) leading to their expansion (Alarid, Montemayor, & Dannhaus, 2012). However, few studies have examined predictors of program outcome in juvenile drug courts, creating a need to better assess who benefits or fails these programs. This study examined this question, extending prior literature on using a risk assessment instrument, the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory, to this setting.

 

Konecky, B., Cellucci, T., & Mochrie, K. (2016). Predictors of program failure in a juvenile drug court program. Addictive Behaviors59, 80–83.

Keywords: adolescents, drug court, substance abuse

special-access-required2016juvenile

Selection into Mental Health Court: Distinguishing Among Eligible Defendants

Authors: Mary Lee Luskin, Bradley Ray
Journal: Criminal Justice and Behavior

How defendants are selected into mental health courts (MHC) is central to issues of fairness, efficacy, and successful program replication. Only recently has empirical research started to examine MHC selection, revealing a multi-stage process with multiple decision makers and multiple variables. In this study, we use classification and regression tree analysis (CART) to examine the variables suggested in recent research to predict selection into MHC. The analysis includes legal and diagnostic variables, treatment history, measures of treatability, motivation to change, violence risk, and symptom severity. We find that the MHC is more likely to accept defendants who did not have warrants issued for their arrest, who had diagnoses other than depression, and who did not report using illegal drugs around the time of their admission. Symptom severity and motivation to treatment also predict MHC admission, with their effects contingent on defendants’ statuses on other variables.

 

Luskin, M. L., & Ray, B. (2015). Selection into mental health court: Distinguishing among eligible defendants. Criminal Justice and Behavior42(11), 1145–1158.

Keywords: admission processes, diversion, mental health courts, selection, selection bias

access-available2015mental-health

The Client–Caseworker Relationship and its Association with Outcomes Among Mental Health Court Participants

Authors: Kelli E. Canada, Matthew W. Epperson
Journal: Community Mental Health Journal

A portion of people with mental illnesses who are arrested are diverted to mental health courts (MHC) where they work with teams of treatment and court staff rather than serving time in custody. This study investigated the association between the relationship with caseworkers and outcomes. MHC participants were recruited to participate in structured interviews on their perceptions of the bond and conflict with their MHC caseworkers. Regression models tested associations between relationships with caseworkers and program retention, service use, and number of days spent in jail. Perceived conflict with caseworkers was higher among participants who were terminated or missing from the MHC. Participants who perceived less conflict with caseworkers utilized more services and spent fewer days in jail. The perceived bond was significantly associated with service use. Caseworkers with clients who are in the criminal justice system should be mindful as conflict arises and implement strategies to effectively manage conflict.

 

Canada, K. E., & Epperson, M. W. (2014). The client–caseworker relationship and its association with outcomes among mental health court participants. Community Mental Health Journal50(8), 968–973.

 

special-access-required2014mental-health

Mental Health Courts and Adult Offenders with Developmental Disabilities and Co-occurring Diagnoses

Authors: Mamadou M. Seck, George S. Tsagaris, Robert Rowe
Journal: Best Practices in Mental Health: An International Journal

This study examined the mental health court (MHC) outcomes of 160 adult offenders with developmental disabilities and co-occurring disorders of mental health or substance abuse who were serviced by the forensic unit of an agency. A descriptive analysis of 120 offenders evaluated by the court clinic identified 23 (19.2%) with developmental disabilities only and three groups with co-occurring disorders including 32 (26.7%) with substance abuse disorders, 45 (37.5%) with mental health disorders, and 20 (16.7%) with mental health and substance abuse disorders. There was no clinical evaluation of the other 40 participants. Crimes varied from burglary to conspiracy using weapons, drug and narcotics trafficking, and theft. For MHC and non-MHC judges, differences in court outcomes were revealed with regard to community control (67% vs. 62%), prison sentences (33% vs. 38%), and recidivism rates. For best practice, additional disability-specific training was recommended for judges and other court professionals.

 

Seck, M. M., Tsagaris, G. S., & Rowe, R. (2017). Mental health courts and adult offenders with developmental disabilities and co-occuring diagnoses. Best Practices in Mental Health: An International Journal13(2), 30–40.

Keywords: co-occurring disorders, court outcomes, mental health court, offenders with developmental disabilities

special-access-required2017mental-health

Predictors of Mental Health Court Graduation

Authors: Virginia Aldigé Hiday, Bradley Ray, Heathcote W. Wales
Journal: Psychology, Public Policy, and Law

Mental health courts (MHCs), nontraditional problem-solving courts designed to address underlying causes of offending rather than apportion guilt and punishment, have been reported to reduce offending among persons with mental illness and consequently have been spreading. Graduation from a MHC has been found to be a major predictor of reduced recidivism; yet few studies have examined factors affecting MHC graduation. This study examines what participants brought to MHC, their processing in MHC, and their behaviors during MHC. It found that noncompliant participant behaviors during MHC had the strongest impact on graduation, increasing the odds of failure to graduate and reducing, if not eliminating, the direct effects on completion of the risk factors participants brought into court.

 

Aldigé Hiday, V., Ray, B., & Wales, H. W. (2014). Predictors of mental health court graduation. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law20(2), 191–199.

Keywords: co-occurring substance abuse, diversion, graduation, mental health courts, severe mental illness

access-available2014mental-health

Recidivism Following Mental Health Court Exit: Between and Within-group Comparisons

Authors: Evan M. Lowder, Sarah L. Desmarais, Daniel J. Baucom
Journal: Law and Human Behavior

Over the past decade, Mental Health Courts (MHCs) have spread rapidly across the U.S. These courts aim to reduce recidivism among adults with mental illnesses through diversion into community-based treatment. Extant research suggests that MHCs can be effective in reducing recidivism, but also demonstrates that effectiveness varies as a function of characteristics of the participants (e.g., criminal history) and the program (e.g., coercion). Less is known regarding the extent to which process-related factors (e.g., length of participation, time between referral and receipt of services) impact effectiveness. Prior research also is limited by a focus on recidivism during MHC as opposed to postexit. To address these knowledge gaps, we examined recidivism 1 year postexit for a group of MHC participants (n = 57) and offenders receiving treatment as usual (TAU; n = 40), total N = 97. We also investigated the influence of individual characteristics and process factors on changes in jail days 1 year preentry to 1 year postexit for MHC participants. Overall, results provide some evidence supporting the effectiveness of MHCs. MHC participants had significantly fewer jail days, but not charges or convictions, relative to TAU participants. Among MHC participants, graduation from the MHC, presence of co-occurring substance use, and longer length of MHC participation were associated with greater reductions in jail days. Other process factors were unrelated to reductions in recidivism. Findings suggest that MHCs may be particularly effective for high-risk participants and that time spent in a MHC has positive effects on recidivism, regardless of graduation status.

 

Lowder, E. M., Desmarais, S. L., & Baucom, D. J. (2016). Recidivism following mental health court exit: Between and within-group comparisons. Law and Human Behavior40(2), 118–127.

 

special-access-required2016mental-health

Assessing the Effectiveness of Drug Courts on Recidivism: A Meta-analytic Review of Traditional and Non-traditional Drug Courts

Authors: Ojmarrh Mitchell, David B.Wilson, Amy Eggers, Doris L. MacKenzie
Journal: Journal of Criminal Justice

Purpose: The objective of this research was to systematically review quasi-experimental and experimental evaluations of the effectiveness of drug courts in reducing offending.

 

Methods: Our search identified 154 independent evaluations: 92 evaluations of adult drug courts, 34 of juvenile drug courts, and 28 of DWI drug courts. The findings of these studies were synthesized using meta-analysis.

 

Results: The vast majority of adult drug court evaluations, even the most rigorous evaluations, find that participants have lower recidivism than non-participants. The average effect of participation is analogous to a drop in recidivism from 50% to 38%; and, these effects last up to three years. Evaluations of DWI drug courts find effects similar in magnitude to those of adult drug courts, but the most rigorous evaluations do not uniformly find reductions in recidivism. Juvenile drug courts have substantially smaller effects on recidivism. Larger reductions in recidivism were found in adult drug courts that had high graduation rates, and those that accepted only non-violent offenders.

 

Conclusions: These findings support the effectiveness of adult drug courts in reducing recidivism. The evidence assessing DWI courts’ effectiveness is very promising but more experimental evaluations are needed. Juvenile drug courts typically produce small reductions in recidivism.

 

Mitchell, O., Wilson, D. B., Eggers, A., & MacKenzie, D. L. (2012). Assessing the effectiveness of drug courts on recidivism: A meta-analytic review of traditional and non-traditional drug courts. Journal of Criminal Justice40(1), 60–71.

 

special-access-required2012adult

Associations with Substance Abuse Treatment Completion Among Drug Court Participants

Author: Randall T. Brown
Journal: Substance Use & Misuse

Subjects in the study included all participants (N = 573) in drug treatment court in a mid-sized U.S. city from 1996 through 2004. Administrative data from the drug court included measures of demographics and socioeconomics, substance use, and criminal justice history. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression yielded a final model of failure to complete drug treatment. Unemployment, lower educational attainment, and cocaine use disorders were associated with failure to complete treatment. The limitations of administrative data should be considered in the interpretation of results.

 

Brown, R. (2010). Associations with substance abuse treatment completion among drug court participants. Substance Use & Misuse45(12), 1874–1891.

Keywords: cocaine, criminal justice, drug abuse, drug court, unemployment

access-available2010adult

Criminally Involved Parents who Misuse Substances and Children’s Odds of Being Arrested as a Young Adult: Do Drug Treatment Courts Mitigate the Risk?

Authors: Elizabeth J. Gifford, Lindsey M. Eldred, Kelly E. Evans, and Frank A. Sloan
Journal: Journal of Child and Family Studies

This paper examined (1) the association between parents who are convicted of a substance-related offense and their children’s probability of being arrested as a young adult and (2) whether or not parental participation in an adult drug treatment court program mitigated this risk. The analysis relied on state administrative data from North Carolina courts (2005–2013) and from birth records (1988–2003). The dependent variable was the probability that a child was arrested as a young adult (16–21). Logistic regression was used to compare groups and models accounted for the clustering of multiple children with the same mother. Findings revealed that children whose parents were convicted on either a substance-related charge on a non-substance-related charge had twice the odds of being arrested as young adult, relative to children whose parents had not been observed having a conviction. While a quarter of children whose parents participated in a drug treatment court program were arrested as young adults, parental completion this program did not reduce this risk. In conclusion, children whose parents were convicted had an increased risk of being arrested as young adults, irrespective of whether or not the conviction was on a substance-related charge. However, drug treatment courts did not reduce this risk. Reducing intergenerational links in the probability of arrest remains a societal challenge.

 

Gifford, E. J., Eldred, L. M., Evans, K. E., & Sloan, F. A. (2016). Criminally involved parents who misuse substances and children’s odds of being arrested as a young adult: Do drug treatment courts mitigate the risk? Journal of Child and Family Studies25(8), 2447–2457.

Keywords: drug treatment court, intergenerational, parental participation, young adult crime

access-available2016adult

Drug Courts and the Facilitation of Turning Points: An Expansion of Life Course Theory

Authors: Sarah Messer, Ryan Patten, Kimberlee Candela
Journal: Contemporary Drug Problems: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly

Life course theory has been used to explain why people stop committing crime and/or deviant behavior. Life course theory scholars have demonstrated important life events, such as marriage, gaining employment, or joining the military, have led to reduced recidivism; however, drug courts might also legitimately be considered a turning point for an offender. This study utilized semi-structured interviews with former drug court participants (n = 29) in an attempt to expand life course theory and demonstrate how drug courts should be considered a facilitator of ‘turning points’ for previous criminal offenders. During the interviews, participants discussed how drug court helped them attain many important skills/ideas: self-esteem, improved relationships with family and children, a general educational development certificate, a driver’s license, and/or gainful employment. A gendered analysis demonstrates women found drug court to be more useful at facilitating turning points than their male peers. Additionally, recidivism rates for the participants were lower than similarly situated offenders at the state level. While further research is needed, this study begins to advance the expansion of life course theory.

 

Messer, S., Patten, R., & Candela, K. (2016). Drug courts and the facilitation of turning points: An expansion of life course theory. Contemporary Drug Problems: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly43(1), 6–24.

Keywords: drug court, gender, life course theory

special-access-required2016adult

Gender-responsive Drug Court Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Nena Messina, Stacy Calhoun, Umme Warda
Journal: Criminal Justice and Behavior

This pilot study compared outcomes for 94 women offenders in San Diego County, California, who participated in four drug court programs. Women were randomized to gender-responsive (GR) programs using Helping Women Recover and Beyond Trauma or standard mixed-gender treatment. Data were collected at program entry, during treatment, and approximately 22 months after treatment entry. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results showed that GR participants had better in-treatment performance, more positive perceptions related to their treatment experience, and trends indicating reductions in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology. Both groups improved in their self-reported psychological well-being and reported reductions in drug use (p < .06) and arrest (a diagnosis of PTSD was the primary predictor of reductions in rearrest, p < .04). Findings show some beneficial effects of adding treatment components oriented toward women’s needs. Significant questions remain, particularly around PTSD and whether it should be targeted to improve substance use outcomes for women.

 

Messina, N., Calhoun, S., & Warda, U. (2012). Gender-responsive drug court treatment: A randomized controlled trial. Criminal Justice and Behavior39(12), 1539–1558.

Keywords: Beyond Trauma, drug court treatment, gender-responsive treatment, Helping Women Recover, randomized controlled trial, women offenders

access-available2012adult

‘I don’t see myself as prison material’: Motivations for Entering a Rural Drug Court

Authors: Ryan Patten, Sarah Messer, Kimberlee Candela
Journal: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology

Since the inception of drug court in the late 1980s, it has become a widely used alternative to incarcerating drug offenders. Previous research has detailed the effectiveness of programming on recidivism, participants’ perceptions of the service delivery model, and cost-effectiveness. The scholarship related to drug offender motivations to participate in drug court has largely discussed family obligations and the sense of loss stemming from drug abuse, and only two studies have discussed the fear of prison as a primary motivator. This research utilized semi-structured interviews with former drug court participants from a rural county in California to ascertain their motivation for engaging in drug court (N = 29). The results show 79% of participants were trying to avoid prison or jail, while 62% were motivated to end the cycle of drug abuse in their lives. The conclusion has policy implications for future drug court design; however, additional research is needed.

 

Patten, R., Messer, S., & Candela, K. (2015). “I don’t see myself as prison material”: Motivations for entering a rural drug court. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology59(11), 1188–1202.

Keywords: drug court, motivation

special-access-required2015adult

Impact of Jail Sanctions during Drug Court Participation upon Substance Abuse Treatment Completion

Authors: Ryan Patten, Sarah Messer, Kimberlee Candela
Journal: Addiction

Aims: This study of participants in a US drug treatment court describes the relationship between the imposition of short‐term jail sanctions and substance abuse treatment dropout, and examines offender characteristics moderating or modifying the impact of jail sanctions on treatment dropout.

 

Methods: Data were derived from administrative information collected by the Dane County Wisconsin Drug Treatment Court from 1996–2004 on all 573 participants achieving a final disposition of treatment completion or failure during those program years. Iterative Cox proportional hazards models of time to treatment failure were created; jail sanctions during drug court participation were framed as time‐dependent covariates. A theoretical framework and specific statistical criteria guided construction of a final parsimonious model of time to treatment drop‐out.

 

Findings: Treatment failure was associated with unemployment [hazard ratio (HR) in unemployed versus employed = 1.41, P‐value 0.0079], lower educational attainment (HR in high school non‐graduate versus graduate = 1.41, P = 0.02) and application of the first jail sanction (HR 2.71, P < 0.001). The association between treatment failure and a first sanction was considerably stronger for sanctions administered earlier in participation (HR for sanction 1 at < 30 days 11.34, P‐value 0.0002).

 

Conclusions: An initial jail sanction for non‐adherence may be more likely to foster treatment compliance in less refractory individuals (i.e. those not already acclimated or socialized to incarceration or other corrections interventions). More stringent supervisory conditions and individualized services may be required to reintegrate such offenders and promote longer‐term public safety.

 

Brown, R. T., Allison, P. A., & Nieto, F. J. (2011). Impact of jail sanctions during drug court participation upon substance abuse treatment completion. Addiction, 106(1), 135–142.

 

access-available2011adult

A Qualitative Analysis of Family Dynamics and Motivation in Sessions with 15 Women in Drug Treatment Court

Authors: Zoe E. Goldberg, Nancy P. Chin, Amina Alio, Geoffrey C. Williams, Diane Morse
Journal: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment

Women with substance use disorders (SUDs) often experience inadequate health care, mental and physical health problems, trauma, lack of social support, and undermining of support for psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness needed for motivation and well-being. For women with SUD trying to reclaim sobriety and a healthy life, family can present both barriers and support. The aim of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of the intersection of family relationships with motivation of women in Drug Treatment Court (DTC) to attain their health goals. Data consist of transcribed intervention sessions between trained peer interventionists and 15 DTC participants from The Women’s Initiative Supporting Health DTC Intervention Study. This analysis uses a qualitative framework approach to analyze the data. The Self-determination Theory of human motivation and Family Systems Theory provide the conceptual framework to understand how participants’ expressions of motivation-related basic needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness and change-related behaviors interfaced with family support. Analysis revealed more mentions of family in motivation-supportive contexts than in motivation-thwarting contexts, but highlighted complex roles families can play in health of women in recovery from SUD. Providers may be able to incorporate this knowledge to address the needs of this challenging population.

 

Goldberg, Z. E., Chin, N. P., Alio, A., Williams, G., & Morse, D. S. (2019). A qualitative analysis of family dynamics and motivation in sessions with 15 women in Drug Treatment Court. Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment13.

Keywords: family support, motivation, substance use disorder, trauma, women’s health

access-available2019adult

A Quantitative Study of a Drug Treatment Court in a Western Canadian City: Post-sentencing and Reoffence Outcomes

Authors: Michael Weinrath, Kelly Gorkoff, Joshua Watts, Calum Smee, Zachary Allard, Michael Bellan , Sarah Lumsden, Melissa Cattini
Journal: Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice

Drug treatment courts (DTCs) have been proposed as an alternative to custody that will better deal with drug-dependent offenders through application of therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ). While DTC proponents emphasize the positive aspects of the judicial involvement and intense treatment that most courts provide, critics observe that there are many punitive aspects to DTCs. Frequent court appearances, curfews, urinalysis, multiple bail conditions, and delayed sentencing can be viewed as extensions of coercive social control rather than as benevolent measures intended to help offenders. Further, critics of Canadian DTCs have challenged the efficacy of treatment. This paper seeks to add to a limited Canadian research literature by examining a DTC in the Prairie city of Winnipeg, Manitoba. Two samples are used: sample 1 examines sentencing outcomes and reoffence data for 199 DTC admissions from 2006 to 2014; sample 2 is employed for a quasi-experimental comparative recidivism study using a propensity score matching determined sample of 63 DTC cases with 167 adult probationers from 2010–12. Graduates showed lower rates of reoffence compared to unsuccessful cases. Sentencing outcomes showed that unsuccessful participants were most often incarcerated when re-sentenced on original charges. Probation cases reoffended at higher rates than the matched DTC group. Administrative violations were still higher than in the probation group, and may actually result in an inflated reoffence rate for Canadian DTCs. Policy implications and directions for further research are discussed.

 

Goldberg, Z. E., Chin, N. P., Alio, A., Williams, G., & Morse, D. S. (2019). A qualitative analysis of family dynamics and motivation in sessions with 15 women in Drug Treatment Court. Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment13.

Keywords: drug dependent, drug treatment courts, problem-solving courts, recidivism, substance abuse

special-access-required2019adult

Parental Criminal Justice Involvement and Children’s Involvement with Child Protective Services: Do Adult Drug Treatment Courts Prevent Child Maltreatment?

Authors: Dr. Elizabeth J. Gifford, Lindsey M. Eldred, Dr. Frank A. Sloan, Kelly E. Evans
Journal: Substance Use & Misuse

Background: In light of evidence showing reduced criminal recidivism and cost savings, adult drug treatment courts have grown in popularity. However, the potential spillover benefits to family members are understudied.

 

Objectives: To examine: (1) the overlap between parents who were convicted of a substance-related offense and their children’s involvement with child protective services (CPS); and (2) whether parental participation in an adult drug treatment court program reduces children’s risk for CPS involvement.

 

Methods: Administrative data from North Carolina courts, birth records, and social services were linked at the child level. First, children of parents convicted of a substance-related offense were matched to (a) children of parents convicted of a nonsubstance-related offense and (b) those not convicted of any offense. Second, we compared children of parents who completed a DTC program with children of parents who were referred but did not enroll, who enrolled for <90 days but did not complete, and who enrolled for 90+ days but did not complete. Multivariate logistic regression was used to model group differences in the odds of being reported to CPS in the 1 to 3 years following parental criminal conviction or, alternatively, being referred to a DTC program.

 

Results: Children of parents convicted of a substance-related offense were at greater risk of CPS involvement than children whose parents were not convicted of any charge, but DTC participation did not mitigate this risk.
Conclusion/Importance: The role of specialty courts as a strategy for reducing children’s risk of maltreatment should be further explored.

 

Gifford, E. J., Eldred, L. M., Sloan, F. A., & Evans, K. E. (2016). Parental criminal justice involvement and children’s involvement with child protective services: Do adult drug treatment courts prevent child maltreatment? Substance Use & Misuse51(2), 179–192.

Keywords: child maltreatment, convictions, drug treatment courts, substance use

access-available2016adult

The Dilemma of Re-licensing DWI Offenders: The Offenders’ Point of View

Authors: Louise Nadeau, Ward Vanlaar, Juliette Jarvis, Thomas G Brown
Journal: Accident Analysis & Prevention

In many jurisdictions, drivers convicted for the first-time of driving while impaired by alcohol undertake a risk assessment that will determine the severity of sanctions and the remedial measures they must follow as requisites for re-licensing. There is uncertainty inherent in the assessment of risk for recidivism, however, many offenders feel unfairly assessed and discommoded by the decision-making process and its consequences. The objective of this qualitative study was to gain insight into the perspectives of offenders regarding re-licensing decision making and sanctioning. Specifically, in focus groups first-time offenders and recidivists were probed as to whether they favoured erring on the side of road safety indecision making, with its consequent greater risk of false positive assessments, or erring on the side of maintaining driving privileges, with its consequent greater risk of false negative assessments. In general, participants preferred a higher probability of false negative vs. false positive assessments. Most cited the consequences of sanctions and remedial measures as too severe to impose them on potentially low-risk drivers, as the assessment and monitoring protocols’ limitations could lead to non-equitable treatment. At the same time, recidivists evoked a greater preference for a higher probability of false positive assessments compared to first-time offenders, as they believed that recidivism was more likely to follow a first conviction than did first-time offenders. This information can be useful for a more comprehensive and societally coherent exercise of DWI prevention policies.

 

Nadeau, L., Vanlaar, W., Jarvis, J., & Brown, T. G. (2016). The dilemma of re-licensing DWI offenders: The offenders’ point of view. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 87, 43–49.

Keywords: alcohol, assessment, driving while intoxicated, driving under the influence, risk, recidivism

special-access-required2016dui-dwi

The Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Driving While Intoxicated Recidivism

Authors: Elizabeth L. Quinn, Thomas P. Quinn
Journal: Journal of Drug Issues

This longitudinal study examined differences in driving while intoxicated (DWI) recidivism among defendants with multiple DWI offenses after receiving a 16-week cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program compared with those who received standard services. Defendants on probation supervision with histories of repeated DWI offenses (N = 286; male = 240, female = 46) were referred to CBT. There was a significant difference in DWI recidivism 3 years after CBT among participants (11%) and the New York State (25%) and national (30%) rates; the comparison group reoffended at the rate of 25%. Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R) scores of the CBT group also decreased significantly compared with the comparison group, and CBT participants showed significant improvement in overall functioning measured by Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). CBT offered in this innovative manner was more effective with recalcitrant, hard to treat, DWI offenders. It may also benefit precontemplative offenders by helping them recognize that their drinking is negatively impacting their lives and may warrant more traditional alcohol treatment.

 

Quinn, T. P., & Quinn, E. L. (2015). The Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Driving While Intoxicated Recidivism. Journal of Drug Issues45(4), 431–446.

Keywords: CBT, DWI, recidivist DWI offenders

special-access-required2015dui-dwi

Effects of Admission and Treatment Strategies of DWI Courts on Offender Outcomes

Authors: Frank A.Sloan, Lindsey M.Chepke, Dontrell V.Davis, Kofi Acquah, Phyllis Zold-Kilbourn
Journal: Accident Analysis & Prevention

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to classify DWI courts on the basis of the mix of difficult cases participating in the court (casemix severity) and the amount of involvement between the court and participant (service intensity). Using our classification typology, we assessed how casemix severity and service intensity are associated with program outcomes. We expected that holding other factors constant, greater service intensity would improve program outcomes while a relatively severe casemix would result in worse program outcomes.

 

Methods: The study used data from 8 DWI courts, 7 from Michigan and 1 from North Carolina. Using a 2way classification system based on court casemix severity and program intensity, we selected participants in 1 of the courts, and alternatively 2 courts as reference groups. Reference group courts had relatively severe casemixes and high service intensity. We used propensity score matching to match participants in the other courts to participants in the reference group court programs. Program outcome measures were the probabilities of participants’: failing to complete the court’s program; increasing educational attainment; participants improving employment from time of program enrollment; and re-arrest.

 

Results: For most outcomes, our main finding was that higher service intensity is associated with better outcomes for court participants, as anticipated, but a court’s casemix severity was unrelated to study outcomes.

 

Conclusions: Our results imply that devoting more resources to increasing duration of treatment is productive in terms of better outcomes, irrespective of the mix of participants in the court’s program.

 

Sloan, F. A., Chepke, L. M., Davis, D. V., Acquah, K., & Zold-Kilbourn, P. (2013). Effects of admission and treatment strategies of DWI courts on offender outcomes. Accident Analysis & Prevention53, 112–120.

Keywords: alcohol-impaired driving, court intervention, drunk driving, DWI offenders, motor vehicle crashes, treatment

special-access-required2013dui-dwi

Novel Method of Estimating AROC using an Injury Risk Curve for Biomechanical Injury Metric Selection

Authors: Alexander Baker, Fang-Chi Hsu, Scott Gayzik
Journal: Traffic Injury Prevention

Objective: Area under the receiver operating characteristic (AROC) is commonly used to evaluate an injury metric’s ability to discriminate between injury and noninjury cases. However, AROC has limitations and may not handle censored data sets adequately. Survival methodology creates robust estimates of injury risk curves (IRCs) which accommodate censored data. We developed an observation-adjusted ROC (oaROC), an AROC-like statistic calculated from the IRC.

 

Methods: oaROC uses an observational distribution and an IRC to measure true positive rate (TPR) and false positive rate (FPR). The oaROC represents what the AROC would be with a large number of observations sampled from the IRC. We verified this using a limit test with simulated data sets at various sample sizes drawn from an assumed “true” IRC. For each sample size, 5,000 different data sets were created; a conventional AROC was calculated for each data set and compared with the single oaROC, which was calculated from the “true” IRC and not dependent on sample size.

 

Results: The oaROC, calculated from the simulated IRC, was 0.911. At a sample size of 20, the mean AROC was 0.930 (2.0% difference). At a sample size of 1,000, the mean AROC was 0.9114 (0.02% difference).

 

Conclusion: We verified that AROC approaches the oaROC with increasing sample sizes, and oaROC presents a measure of IRC discriminatory ability. Survival methodology can estimate IRCs using censored observations and the oaROC was designed with this in mind. The oaROC may be a useful measure of discrimination for data sets containing censored data. Further investigation is needed to evaluate oaROC calculated from estimated IRCs.

 

Baker, A., Hsu, F.-C., & Gayzik, S. (2018). Novel method of estimating AROC using an injury risk curve for biomechanical injury metric selection. Traffic Injury Prevention19(sup1), S174–S176.

Keywords: deemed-approved ordinance, driving while intoxicated, saturation patrols, sobriety checkpoints, social host ordinance, underage drinking

special-access-required2018dui-dwi

Predictors of Completion of a Driving Under the Influence (DUI) Court for Repeat Offenders

Authors: Christine A. Saum, Matthew L. Hiller, Bridget A. Nolan
Journal: Criminal Justice Review

Driving under the influence (DUI) courts are a somewhat recent adaptation of the widely popular drug courts. As such there is a need for more research on these specialty courts that target DUI offenders. An important area of research is program completion and determining what factors may be related to participant dropout. The current study presents findings on a 3-year admissions cohort of participants in the Waukesha Alcohol Treatment Court (WATC) for third-time DUI offenders. This program has been in operation for over 6 years and is a court-based intervention program specifically designed by local stakeholders to address the serious DUI problem in Waukesha County, Wisconsin. Results indicate that variables related to pretrial and case processing, including having participated in substance abuse treatment prior to DUI court entry, were related to WATC completion status. Patterns emerged for the sociodemographic and substance use and health variables, although these relationships did not reach statistical significance. DUI court planners can utilize this information when applying The Ten Guiding Principles of DWI Courts to their courts such as identifying subsets of DUI offenders and refining program components to improve participant completion and subsequent successful outcomes.

 

Saum, C. A., Hiller, M. L., & Nolan, B. A. (2013). Predictors of Completion of a Driving Under the Influence (DUI) Court for Repeat Offenders. Criminal Justice Review38(2), 207–225.

Keywords: court innovations, courts/law, drugs and crime, other, substance abuse

special-access-required2013dui-dwi

Civil Jurisdiction: The Boundaries between Federal and Tribal Courts

Author: Melissa Tatum
Journal: Arizona State Law Journal

 

Koehn, M. L. (1997). Civil Jurisdiction: The Boundaries between Federal and Tribal Courts. Arizona State Law Journal29(3), 705–768.
access-available1997tribal

Custom, Tribal Court Practice, and Popular Justice

Author: Elizabeth E. Joh
Journal: American Indian Law Review

 

Elizabeth E. Joh, Custom, Tribal Court Practice, and Popular Justice, 25 Am. Indian L. Rev. 117 (2000),
https://digitalcommons.law.ou.edu/ailr/vol25/iss1/5

 

access-available2000tribal

In a Class by Themselves: A Proposal to Incorporate Tribal Courts into the Federal Court System without Compromising Their Unique Status as “Domestic Dependent Nations”

Author: R. Stephen McNeill
Journal: Washington and Lee Law Review

 

McNeill, R. S. (2008). In a Class by Themselves: A Proposal to Incorporate Tribal Courts into the Federal Court System without Compromising Their Unique Status as Domestic Dependent Nations. Washington and Lee Law Review65(1), 283–346.

 

access-available2008tribal

Indian Courts and Fundamental Fairness: Indian Courts and the Future Revisited

Author: Matthew L. M. Fletcher
Journal: University of Colorado Law Review

 

Fletcher, M. L. M. (2013). Indian Courts and Fundamental Fairness: Indian Courts and the Future Revisited. University of Colorado Law Review84(1), 59–96.

 

access-available2013tribal

Montana Tribal Courts: Influencing the Development of Contemporary Indian Law

Authors: Margery H. Brown, Brenda C. Desmond
Journal: Montana Law Review

 

Brown, M. H., & Desmond, B. C. (1991). Montana Tribal Courts: Influencing the Development of Contemporary Indian Law. Montana Law Review52(2), 211–306.

 

access-available1991tribal

The Efficacy of the Rio Hondo DUI Court: A 2-Year Field Experiment

Authors: John M. MacDonald, Andrew R. Morral, Barbara Raymond, Christine Eibner
Journal: Evaluation Review

This study reports results from an evaluation of the experimental Rio Hondo driving under the influence (DUI) court of Los Angeles County, California. Interviews and official record checks with 284 research participants who were randomly assigned to a DUI court or a traditional criminal court were assessed at baseline and at 24-month follow-up. The interviews assessed the impact of the DUI court on self-reported drunk driving behavior, the completion of treatment, time spent in jail, alcohol use, and stressful life events. Official record checks assessed the impact of the DUI court on subsequent arrests for driving under the influence and other drinking-related behaviors. Few differences on any outcomes were observed between participants in the experimental DUI court and those assigned to the traditional court. The results suggest that the DUI court model had little additional therapeutic or public safety benefit over the traditional court process. The implication of these findings for the popularity of specialized courts for treating social problems is discussed.

 

MacDonald, J. M., Morral, A. R., Raymond, B., & Eibner, C. (2007). The Efficacy of the Rio Hondo DUI Court: A 2-Year Field Experiment. Evaluation Review31(1), 4–23.

Keywords: driving under the influence, DUI courts, randomized experiment

special-access-required2007dui-dwi

Unlocking the Black Box: Indicators of Treatment Noncompliance in a DWI Court Program

Authors: Claire Nolasco, Pierre Rivolta, Janet L. Mullings, Aneta Spaic
Journal: Journal of Substance Use

Although a plethora of research has been conducted on the profiles of substance abusers and the efficacy of various drug treatment programs in lowering post-treatment recidivism, there has been a dearth of studies on the treatment progress itself, the ‘‘black-box’’ in drug/DWI treatment research. This study examines the indicators of treatment noncompliance among a sample of DWI Court Program participants of one county in a Southern state. Results of regression indicate that clients with delinquent peers were less likely to comply with treatment conditions. Results indicate that the odds of a client with criminal acquaintances to be noncompliant were 4.8 times greater than for a client with no criminal acquaintances (p50.05). A greater count of sanctions and incentives received also increased the odds of being noncompliant. The odds of a client being noncompliant were 1.5 times greater when the count of incentives increased by one unit. Similarly, the odds of a client being noncompliant were 2.2 times greater when the count of sanctions increased by one unit. Results indicate that the quality of incentives and sanctions rather than the number or rate granted to clients may be more predictive of treatment compliance.

 

Nolasco, C., Rivolta, P., Mullings, J., & Spaic, A. (2015). Unlocking the black box: indicators of treatment noncompliance in a DWI court program. Journal of Substance Use, 21, 1-5.

Keywords: drug and alcohol use, DWI courts, program evaluation, treatment compliance

access-available2015dui-dwi

A Meta-Analytic Examination of Drug Treatment Courts: Do they Reduce Recidivism?

Authors: Jeff Latimer, Kelly Morton-Bourgon, Jo-Anne Chrétien
Journal: Department of Justice Canada

A meta-analysis was conducted to determine if drug treatment courts reduce recidivism compared to traditional justice system responses. After a comprehensive search of both the published and unpublished literature, 54 studies were located and deemed acceptable according to the study inclusion criteria. Since studies oftentimes contained information on more than one program, data from 66 individual drug treatment court programs were aggregated and analyzed. The results indicated that drug treatment courts significantly reduced the recidivism rates of participants by 14% compared to offenders within the control/comparison groups. Several variables identified in the analysis, however, had an impact on the results, including the age of the participants, the length of the program, the follow-up period used to measure recidivism, and other methodological variables (i.e., the use of random assignment and the choice of the comparison group). While there are other issues that were not the subject of this research, such as the cost-effectiveness of DTCs, the results of this meta-analysis provides clear support for the use of drug treatment courts as a method of reducing crime among offenders with substance abuse problems.

 

Latimer, J., Morton-Bourgon, K., & Chrétien, J.-A. (2006). A Meta-Analytic Examination of Drug Treatment Courts: Do they Reduce Recidivism? Research and Statistics Division/Department of Justice Canada, 24.

 

access-available2006adult

A Phenomenological Approach to Assessing a DUI/DWI Program

Authors: Raymund E. Narag, Sheila Royo Maxwell, Byung Lee
Journal: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology

In an effort to find a more proactive solution to the problem of drunk driving, a midwestern city has implemented a Driving Under the Influence or Driving While Impaired (DUI/DWI) Court program, a derivative of the popular drug courts. Eligible participants are those who have had two or more drunk-driving offenses but who have not been convicted of a violent offense. Participants volunteer for a 36-week program in exchange for a suspension of their prison sentence. Program elements include drug/alcohol monitoring, support groups, counseling, and extensive supervision. Using a phenomenological approach, this article describes the challenges faced by 20 participants, how they navigated the program requirements, their key realizations about their conditions, and their views on the viability and effectiveness of the program. The article uses qualitative interviews of participants and stakeholders collected for a process evaluation of the DUI program, and official records collected for programming purposes. Findings from this research can be used broadly for programming purposes and can be used by other court jurisdictions that are developing similar programs.

 

Narag, R. E., Maxwell, S. R., & Lee, B. (2013). A Phenomenological Approach to Assessing a DUI/DWI Program. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 57(2), 229–250.

Keywords: deterrence, drug court, phenomenology, process evaluation, reintegrative shaming

special-access-required2013adult

A Theoretical Exploration of a Drug Court Program based on Client Experiences

Authors: Loreen Wolfer, James C. Roberts
Journal: Contemporary Drug Problems

While many agree that drug court programs work, researchers generally have not examined any conceptual frameworks for why. Twenty-six graduates of a county drug court were interviewed about their views of the program. Findings suggest that this program was effective because 1) its model of treatment assisted participants in their reintegration back into society without further stigmatizing them; 2) it provided a form of “outer containment” that held participants’ behaviors in check; and 3) the treatment options strengthened participants’ own internal control mechanisms. Braithwaite’s (1989) theory of reintegrative shaming and Reckless’ (1961) containment theory offer important frameworks for understanding these findings. Implications for future research and policy are discussed.

 

Wolfer, L., & Roberts, J. C. (2008). A Theoretical Exploration of a Drug Court Program based on Client Experiences. Contemporary Drug Problems, 35(2–3), 481–507.

 

special-access-required2008adult

Predicting Drug Court Treatment Completion Using the MMPI-2-RF

Authors: Curtis Mattson, Bradley Powers, Dale Halfaker, Steven Akeson, Yossef Ben-Porath
Journal: Psychological Assessment

We examined the ability of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008) substantive scales to predict Drug Court treatment completion in a sample of individuals identified as being at risk for failure to complete the program. Higher scores on MMPI-2-RF scales Behavior/Externalizing Dysfunction, Antisocial Behavior, Aberrant Experiences, Juvenile Conduct Problems, Aggression, and Disconstraint–Revised were associated with increased risk for failure to complete treatment. These results are consistent with previous findings (O’Reilly, 2007; Sellbom, Ben-Porath, Baum, Erez, & Gregory, 2008) regarding treatment completion. Gender was also found to be associated with treatment completion, with females being more likely to complete the Drug Court program than males. Zero-order correlations and relative risk analyses indicated that the MMPI-2-RF can provide useful information regarding risk factors for failure to complete Drug Court treatment. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

 

Mattson, C., Powers, B., Halfaker, D., Akeson, S., & Ben-Porath, Y. (2012). Predicting drug court treatment completion using the MMPI-2-RF. Psychological Assessment, 24(4), 937–943.

 

special-access-required2012adult

Rethinking Court-Sanctioned Reintegration Processes: Redemption Rituals as an Alternative to the Drug Court Graduation

Authors: Izaak L. Williams, David Mee-Lee, John R. Gallagher, Katherine Irwin
Journal: The Howard Journal of Crime and Justice

This research-based position paper offers critical examination and critique of the drug court (DC) graduation model and outlines an alternative approach. To enhance reconfiguration of the current DC graduation system, we propose a redemption-oriented framework that we believe is better aligned with the rehabilitation literature and reintegrative shaming theory. These conceptual underpinnings cohere with restorative justice and together represent a useful interpretive perspective for examining current DC practices in the United States. They also align with the goals we believe redemption rituals should elevate. This is based on four main elements of redemption rituals: achievement; co-ordination of care; status elevation; and moral inclusion. We operationalise these elements by identifying two constituent factors of each. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications for DC practice and recommendations for future research in this area.

 

Williams, I. L., Mee‐Lee, D., Gallagher, J. R., & Irwin, K. (2017). Rethinking Court-Sanctioned Reintegration Processes: Redemption Rituals as an Alternative to the Drug Court Graduation. The Howard Journal of Crime and Justice, 56(2), 244–267.

Keywords: drug court (DC), graduation ceremony, recidivism, redemption rituals, reintegrative shaming theory, substance use disorders

special-access-required2017adult

Symptoms of Depression and Successful Drug Court Completion

Authors: Natasha S. Mendoza, Jonathan R. Trinidad, Thomas H. Nochajski, Mark C. Farrell
Journal: Community Mental Health Journal

The majority of drug abusing offenders who need substance abuse treatment do not receive it. Although interventions like drug court increase the probability of offender success, little is known about how co-occurring psychological symptoms impact drug court treatment outcomes. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that co-occurring psychological symptoms would have a significant relationship with successful drug court completion. Using a sample of suburban drug court enrollees (n = 122), multivariate logistic regression was conducted with successful drug court completion as the outcome variable. Predictor variables included symptom counts of depression, post-traumatic stress, obsessive–compulsive disorder, panic disorder, psychosis, generalized anxiety, and social phobia. Results indicated that participants with fewer symptoms of depression were more likely to successfully complete drug court than participants with more symptoms. The present study extends previous research by demonstrating that symptoms of depression are related to poorer outcomes for drug court enrollees. Accordingly, drug courts need to address participants’ symptoms of depression to maximize success.

 

Mendoza, N. S., Trinidad, J. R., Nochajski, T. H., & Farrell, M. C. (2013). Symptoms of depression and successful drug court completion. Community Mental Health Journal, 49(6), 787–792.

Keywords: alcohol and drugs, co-occurring psychological symptoms, depression, drug court, mental health

special-access-required2013adult

What Works in Substance Abuse Treatment Programs for Offenders?

Authors: Stephen J. Bahr, Amber L. Masters, Bryan M. Taylor
Journal: The Prison Journal

The purpose of this article is to review current empirical research on the effectiveness of drug treatment programs, particularly those for prisoners, parolees, and probationers. The authors reviewed empirical research published after the year 2000 that they classified as Level 3 or higher on the Maryland Scale. Participants in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), therapeutic communities, and drug courts had lower rates of drug use and crime than comparable individuals who did not receive treatment. Several different types of pharmacological treatments were associated with a reduced frequency of drug use. Those who received contingency management tended to use drugs less frequently, particularly if they also received cognitive-behavioral therapy. Finally, researchers reported that drug use and crime were lower among individuals whose treatment was followed by an aftercare program. Effective treatment programs tend to (a) focus on high-risk offenders, (b) provide strong inducements to receive treatment, (c) include several different types of interventions simultaneously, (d) provide intensive treatment, and (e) include an aftercare component.

 

Bahr, S. J., Masters, A. L., & Taylor, B. M. (2012). What works in substance abuse treatment programs for offenders? The Prison Journal, 92(2), 155–174.

Keywords: effectiveness, prisoners, substance abuse, treatment

special-access-required2012adult

A Theoretical Model of Drug/DUI Courts: An Application of Structural Ritualization Theory

Authors: Bin Liang, J. David Knottnerus, Michael A. Long
Journal: American Journal of Criminal Justice

Past studies of Drug/DUI courts primarily focused on outcome evaluation and policy-driven issues, but lacked an effective theoretical framework for understanding drug court programs, in particular the interaction between the program and clients. In this study, we apply structural ritualization theory (SRT) to the Drug/DUI program and argue that such programs serve two key functions, to disrupt clients’ old rituals (e.g., drug/alcohol abuse, committing crimes), and to help lay a foundation for building new abstinent and noncriminal ritualized practices for clients both in and after the drug court program. We further argue that the effectiveness of drug program functions and services at the organizational level and the success of clients’ transformation at the individual level can be empirically measured and studied by four elements of SRT, including salience, repetitiveness, homologousness, and resources. Policy implications are drawn based on the contribution of SRT.

 

Liang, B., Knottnerus, J. D., & Long, M. A. (2016). A Theoretical Model of Drug/DUI Courts: An Application of Structural Ritualization Theory. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 41, 17.

Keywords: DUI/drug program, SRT, theoretical model

access-available2016adult